Learning classicalvs operant_use_in_class[1]


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Learning classicalvs operant_use_in_class[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Learning
  2. 2. Learning <ul><li>Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience </li></ul><ul><li>Innate behaviors are inborn, emerge during certain periods, and are not the result of learning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Certain stimuli can elicit a reflexive response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air puff >> eye-blink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smelling food >> can produce salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The reflexive stimulus ( UCS ) and response ( UCR ) are unconditioned </li></ul><ul><li>The neutral stimulus is referred to as the conditioned stimulus ( CS ) </li></ul><ul><li>In classical conditioning, the CS is repeatedly paired with the reflexive stimulus ( UCS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the CS will produce a response ( CR ) similar to that produced by the UCS </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pavlov’s Experiment
  5. 5. Analysis of Pavlov’s Study
  6. 6. Conditioning of Emotional Responses <ul><li>John Watson documented that conditioning of emotional responses in the Little Albert study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS: a white rat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCS: a loud banging sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCR: fear/startle response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually Albert exhibited fear to the white rat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other instances of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive: conditioning of attraction in advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brand name ( CS ) + attractive model ( UCS ) => liking ( UCR ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: aversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flavor ( CS ) + illness ( UCS ) => flavor aversion ( UCR ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Little Albert
  8. 8. Extinction <ul><li>Pairings of the CS and UCS lead to conditioning whereas presentation of the CS only leads to loss of the conditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction refers to loss of response to a CS presented without the UCS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction is not forgetting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction is useful in clinical situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction of a phobia can be treated by exposure to the CS only </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Operant/Skinnerian Conditioning <ul><li>Organisms make responses that have consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The response can be associated with cues in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We put coins in a machine to obtain food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But we refrain when an Out of Order sign is placed on the machine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Operant Conditioning A form of learning in which a specific action (an operant response) is made to occur either more frequently or less frequently by manipulating its consequences in the environment. B.F. Skinner Operant Response Change in Environment Change in response Dog stands Gets food Dog stands again An operant response “operates” on the environment and causes it to change in some way. The environment, in turn, causes the behavior to change in some way.
  11. 11. Operant Conditioning Versus Classical Conditioning In Classical Conditioning, the subject’s response has no consequences; it produces no change in the environment. The dog gets the food after the bell is rung whether or not he salivates to the bell. His behavior doesn’t matter. In Operant Conditioning, the dog has to stand up to get the food. His behavior does matter.
  12. 12. Key Aspects of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>In operant conditioning, the stimulus is a cue, it does not elicit the response </li></ul><ul><li>Operant responses are voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>In operant conditioning, the response elicits a reinforcing stimulus </li></ul>
  13. 13. Key Terms of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcement is any procedure that increases the response </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment is any procedure that decreases the response </li></ul><ul><li>Types of reinforcers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary : e.g. food or water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary : money or power </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Reinforcement/Punishment
  15. 15. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous : reinforcement occurs after every response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces rapid acquisition and is subject to rapid extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial : reinforcement occurs after some, but not all, responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responding on a partial reinforcement schedule is more resistant to extinction </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Partial Reinforcement Schedules <ul><li>Ratio : every nth response is reinforced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed: every nth response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable: on average, every nth response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interval : first response after some interval results in reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed: interval is x in length (e.g. 1 min) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable: the average interval is x </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Shaping <ul><li>Shaping – rewarding successive approximations towards the final goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used often in phobias… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.G. fear of snakes… </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Punishment <ul><li>Positive Punishment – presenting a stimulus that leads to a lowered likelihood for a response to occur in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Punishment – removing a stimulus that leads to a lowered likelihood for a response to occur in the future </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reinforcement/Punishment
  20. 20. Biofeedback <ul><li>Feedback allows for control of responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most operant responses are voluntary motor system responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not provide sufficient sensory feedback to the brain to allow for conscious control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback uses electronic devices to provide feedback and control of ANS function (e.g. skin temperature) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Biofeedback
  22. 22. Cognitive-Social Theory <ul><li>Cognitive-social theory: uses learning principles in combination with an emphasis on thought processes </li></ul><ul><li>Observational learning refers to the notion that humans can learn through observation of models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires attention to the model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves cognitive abilities to organize and remember the modeled behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires practice of the modeled behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person must decide to use the modeled behavior </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Neuroscience of Learning <ul><li>Learning involves changes in the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical changes noted during learning include changes in the ability of neurons to release transmitters across the synaptic cleft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomical changes during learning include circuits within particular brain regions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the cerebellum plays a role in certain forms of classical conditioning (involving an eye blinking) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Summary of Conditioning