Energy and Organisms

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Thie presentation focuses on major biological concepts from Chapter 2 of BSCB Blue: A Molecular Approach

Thie presentation focuses on major biological concepts from Chapter 2 of BSCB Blue: A Molecular Approach

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  • 1. Energy and Organisms
  • 2. Energy and Nutrients
    • Energy is the capacity to do work or cause change
    • Organisms store energy in organic molecules as chemical energy
    • Free energy is the portion of energy released during chemical reactions that is available to do work
    • Organisms obtain their energy through Heterotrophy or Autotrophy
  • 3. Chemical Reactions Make Life Possible! Autotrophs Heterotrophs and Autotrophs Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Energy Flow and Conversions
    • The Law of Conservation of Energy
    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change form
    • The total energy of the universe is constant
    • Organisms cannot create their own energy but must obtain it from an outside source
    • The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    • There is a natural tendency towards disorder “entropy”
    • Energy is required to resist entropy
    • An organism must be well organized to remain alive and grow (Organization requires energy)
  • 7. Chemical Reactions Proceed as Follows: Reactants Products Metabolism and Energy Transfer Energy must be added to “ activate ” the reaction and break the bonds between atoms
  • 8. Under Normal Conditions, a High Amount of Energy is Needed to Start a Reaction Activation Energy In cases like this ( High AE ), reactions would occur too slowly to support life!!! Energy of Reactants Energy of Products
  • 9. Catalysts Catalysts speed up the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to get the reaction going Catalysts are not changed or used up during a reaction!
  • 10. A Catalyzed Reaction… Requires less energy to get started!!! Energy of Reactants Energy of Products Activation Energy
  • 11. The Living Cell has Special Molecules Which Act as Catalysts……. Enzymes
    • Protein Biomolecules
    • Specific to a Substance or Reaction
    • Speeds up Biological Reactions to 10,000,000,000 Times Faster
  • 12. How do Enzymes Work? Bind to Specific Reactants to Form a Complex Reactants called Substrates Substrate Binds to the Enzyme at the Active Site
  • 13. Enzymatic Reactions Important Enzyme: Catalase Breaks H 2 O 2 into H 2 O and O 2 Hydrogen Peroxide is Toxic to Cells Enzymes use “induced fit” to help bonds form or break between compounds E + S ES E + P Catalase + H 2 O 2 Complex Catalase + H 2 O + O 2
  • 14. Naming Enzymes Enzymes are named by taking either the name of the substrate or the action performed and adding the ending “ ase ”
    • DNA Polymerase
    • Lactase
    • Ligase
  • 15. Factors Effecting Enzyme Action
    • pH: Measure of Solution (0-14)
    • Neutral (pure water) = 7
    • Acids are less than 7, bases more than 7
    • ***Each enzyme has its own range of optimal pH
    • Temperature: temp = rate
    • temp = rate
    • ***Temperatures too high or low will denature the enzyme!
  • 16. Chemical Reactions in Organisms Metabolism : All the chemical activities in a cell or organism Synthesis: “building-up” reactions biosynthesis, photosynthesis dehydration synthesis Decomposition: “breaking down” reactions cellular respiration, digestion hydrolysis
  • 17. Energy Exchange in Cells
    • Decomposition reactions release free energy
    • Oxidation is the removal of electrons from a molecule
    • Bonds are broken and rearranged
    • Some energy of the original molecule is released as heat and free energy
    • Free energy is finally captured in ATP (adenosine triphosphate)