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Understanding Motivators andEvaluating SNAP/EBT IncentiveOutcomes in Farmers Markets Stacy Miller, Farmers Market Coalition Migdalia Loyola, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota Amy Gilroy, Oregon Public Health Institute Richard McCarthy, marketumbella.org
In•cen•tive theory Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation is mediated by environmental events. Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems. A persons actions always have social ramifications; if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner.
In•cen•tive From Latin incentivus (circa1400): … “setting the tune.” A reward, tangible or intangible, presented after the occurrence of a behavior with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. Associates positive meaning to the behavior.
In•cen•tive When we reward A, while hoping for B, are we achieving the intended outcome? Is the external reward the only reason for continuing a behavior? “Incentives are no substitute for good management”
Motivations Intrinsic motivation ◦ Driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Individuals attribute results to factors under their own control Extrinsic motivation ◦ Driven from factors outside of the individual. e.g. money, grades, trophies, or threat of punishment.
Motivators for Communities Reduced cost to taxpayers Formation of partnerships that increase effectiveness/efficiency Ability to engage new and regular volunteers Ability to raise funds; write successful grants Adding accessibility and equity to marketing and promotion themes Improved individual well-being and community health
Motivators for Individuals Taking care of the family Sense of belonging Most value for $ spent (finding a good deal) Ability to learn something; impart knowledge to peers Variety of product choices Developing relationships with producers of similar cultural heritage
Motivators for Farmers & Producers Access to brand new customer base Increased customer loyalty Building reputation for high value Capturing new product niches Financial literacy
What is the “desired behavior?”What is the “reward?”
What is success? Define success in the beginning, and identify its expected short term and long term indicators ◦ Economic indicators: sales and per person spending increase, dollars circulated locally ◦ Social indicators: relationships, equity of access, ethnic, age, and language diversity at market ◦ Human indicators: skills learned, habits changed, knowledge gained Locate or collect all pertinent baseline data
“If you dont know where youare going, you will probably end up somewhere else.” Lawrence Peters
Reflection What has become clearer? What questions do you still have?
Discussion What defines success to your stakeholders? What indicators have you used to measure less tangible intrinsic motivators being met (like increased sense of belonging?) What and how much data is it appropriate to collect from incentive participants? What examples can you share about unconventional incentives? What intrinsic motivator is it seeking to satisfy?
Resources Real Food, Real Choice: Connecting SNAP Recipients with Farmers Markets farmersmarketcoalition.org/real-food-real-choice Farmers Market Manager FAQ farmersmarketcoalition.org/managerfaq Information Marketplace Webinars farmersmarketcoalition.org/information-marketplace Seven Ways, Seven Days to Celebrate Farmers Markets www.farmersmarketcoalition.org/seven-days-seven-ways-2011 Oregon Public Health Institute www.orphi.org Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota www.preventionminnesota.com