No Local Food without Local         Farmland   Kathryn Gardow—Gardow Consulting   Kimberly Freeman—Pierce County, WA      ...
THE ISSUE:To I-5               © Gardow Consulting
Urban Pressure             Loss is approx. 1 acre/minute  2002-2007 U.S. lost over 4,000,000 acres of farmland  1982-2007 ...
Washington StateDigital-topo-maps.com                      © Gardow Consulting
Olympic Peninsula, WA             60 Acre Farm                            © Gardow Consulting
Olympic Peninsula, WAPrime SoilsPrime Soils, if irrigated                            © Gardow Consulting
Olympic Peninsula, WA                        Zoned R5=1 house/5 acres                       60 Acre Farm    Zoned AR=1 hou...
Olympic Peninsula, WA          60 Acre Farm                         © Gardow Consulting
Urban pressure = increased land prices             North Pierce County                                   © Gardow Consulting
1,500 Food Miles TraveledPortland                                       New York                                         C...
What is an experienced farmer?• 7-15 years to become  experienced• Living through multiple  growing seasons• Willingness t...
Value of land as retirement fund                               © Gardow Consulting
Agriculture JeopardyPreservation      Market      Succession   Align and Act! Strategies      Strategies   Strategies     ...
Agriculture JeopardyPreservation       Market      Succession   Align and Act! Strategies       Strategies   Strategies   ...
Agriculture JeopardyPreservation      Market      Succession   Align and Act! Strategies      Strategies   Strategies     ...
Cluster Zoning                 © Gardow Consulting
Agriculture JeopardyPreservation      Market      Succession   Align and Act! Strategies      Strategies   Strategies     ...
Agriculture JeopardyPreservation      Market      Succession   Align and Act! Strategies      Strategies   Strategies     ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation      Market      Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies      Strategies   Strategies ...
TDR / PDR Programs• Pierce County—Orting Valley Farms PDR• King County-TDR since 2001, saved 141,000 acres of  farm, fores...
Funding Sources• Local Land Trusts• State & Local Funding Sources• Federal Funding Sources—NRCS-Farmland  Protection Progr...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation      Market      Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies      Strategies   Strategies ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation      Market      Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies      Strategies   Strategies ...
Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation       Market      Succession   Align and Act!  Strategies       Strategies   Strategies ...
Land Affordability• Land for Housing Costs  $20,000-$50,000/Acre• Land for Warehouse &  Industrial Development  $40,000-$8...
Appraisal Process         • Appraiser must           perform “highest &           best use analysis”         • “Highest & ...
Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation       Market      Succession   Align and Act!  Strategies       Strategies   Strategies ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation         Market           Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies         Strategies   ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation      Market         Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies      Strategies      Strat...
Direct Sales“Access to urban markets is crucial to farmers            engaged in direct sales.”      No Local Food without...
Direct Consumer Sales• Farmers’ Markets—6,132  markets in 2010• Community Supported  Agriculture (CSA)—more  than 2,500• U...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation      Market         Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies      Strategies      Strat...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market          Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies       S...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market         Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies      Str...
Farm to School Programs• 1996—2 pilot Farm to School Programs• 2011—2352 Farm to School Programs                          ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market        Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies     Strat...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation        Market          Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies        Strategies      ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market         Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies      Str...
Value-Added Products                       © Gardow Consulting
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market         Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies      Str...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession       Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies   ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market         Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies      Str...
WWOOF• World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms• 99 Countries with WWOOF Opportunities                                   ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market         Succession   Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies      Str...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market         Succession     Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies      S...
Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation        Market           Succession        Align and Act!  Strategies        Strategies  ...
Sustainable Agricultural Programs• Washington State University• C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable  Food Systems at Michigan ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Apprentice and Internship Programs                                     © Gardow Consulting
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Food Policy              © Gardow Consulting
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Web Soil SurveyWeb Soil Survey – http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda,gov                Click on Start WSS                     ...
Agricultural Soil Values  Prime    Prime Farmland, if    Prime Farmland, ifFarmland    protected from         protected fr...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Agriculture Jeopardy  Preservation       Market           Succession        Align and Act!   Strategies       Strategies  ...
Vermont’s Successful Program•   1,650 parcels of land protected•   More than 500,000 acres protected•   Approximately 8% o...
Food for Thought•   Preservation•   Create and expand market demand•   Pay attention to succession•   Food Policy and Acti...
Reference List•   American Farmland Trust, http://www.farmland.org/•   Cascade Harvest Coalition, http://www.cascadeharves...
Thank you
Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation       Market      Succession   Align and Act!  Strategies       Strategies   Strategies ...
No Local Food without Local Farmland:  Keeping Farmland Available for Farming - PowerPoint Presentation
No Local Food without Local Farmland:  Keeping Farmland Available for Farming - PowerPoint Presentation
No Local Food without Local Farmland:  Keeping Farmland Available for Farming - PowerPoint Presentation
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No Local Food without Local Farmland: Keeping Farmland Available for Farming - PowerPoint Presentation

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No Local Food without Local Farmland: Keeping Farmland Available for Farming - PowerPoint Presentation

  1. 1. No Local Food without Local Farmland Kathryn Gardow—Gardow Consulting Kimberly Freeman—Pierce County, WA © Gardow Consulting
  2. 2. THE ISSUE:To I-5 © Gardow Consulting
  3. 3. Urban Pressure Loss is approx. 1 acre/minute 2002-2007 U.S. lost over 4,000,000 acres of farmland 1982-2007 U.S. lost over 41,000,000 acres of farmland 91% of fruits & 78% of vegetables are grown in the urban fringe © Gardow Consulting
  4. 4. Washington StateDigital-topo-maps.com © Gardow Consulting
  5. 5. Olympic Peninsula, WA 60 Acre Farm © Gardow Consulting
  6. 6. Olympic Peninsula, WAPrime SoilsPrime Soils, if irrigated © Gardow Consulting
  7. 7. Olympic Peninsula, WA Zoned R5=1 house/5 acres 60 Acre Farm Zoned AR=1 house/16 acres Zoned R2=1 house/2.5 acres © Gardow Consulting
  8. 8. Olympic Peninsula, WA 60 Acre Farm © Gardow Consulting
  9. 9. Urban pressure = increased land prices North Pierce County © Gardow Consulting
  10. 10. 1,500 Food Miles TraveledPortland New York City © Gardow Consulting
  11. 11. What is an experienced farmer?• 7-15 years to become experienced• Living through multiple growing seasons• Willingness to continue being educated with new varieties, growing methods, etc.• Willingness to re-invent one’s self © Gardow Consulting
  12. 12. Value of land as retirement fund © Gardow Consulting
  13. 13. Agriculture JeopardyPreservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies $10 $10 $10 $10 $100 $100 $100 $100 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting
  14. 14. Agriculture JeopardyPreservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies StrategiesLand use code $10 $10 $10 strategy $100 $100 $100 $100 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting
  15. 15. Agriculture JeopardyPreservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning? $100 $100 $100 $100 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting
  16. 16. Cluster Zoning © Gardow Consulting
  17. 17. Agriculture JeopardyPreservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning? $100 $100 $100 $100 $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting
  18. 18. Agriculture JeopardyPreservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning? Uses public / private $ or $100 $100 $100trade markets $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting
  19. 19. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting
  20. 20. TDR / PDR Programs• Pierce County—Orting Valley Farms PDR• King County-TDR since 2001, saved 141,000 acres of farm, forest & open space land © Gardow Consulting
  21. 21. Funding Sources• Local Land Trusts• State & Local Funding Sources• Federal Funding Sources—NRCS-Farmland Protection Program © Gardow Consulting
  22. 22. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? $1000 $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting
  23. 23. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? Values land as resource nothighest and best $1000 $1000 $1000 use © Gardow Consulting
  24. 24. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  25. 25. Land Affordability• Land for Housing Costs $20,000-$50,000/Acre• Land for Warehouse & Industrial Development $40,000-$80,000/Acre• Land on Which a Farmer can be Profitable $4,000- $10,000/Acre © Gardow Consulting
  26. 26. Appraisal Process • Appraiser must perform “highest & best use analysis” • “Highest & best use” can still be more than a farmer can afford • Appraisal does not consider social values such as food production © Gardow Consulting
  27. 27. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 Zoning?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  28. 28. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies Access to urban What is markets is crucial $10 $10 zoning? for salesWhat is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  29. 29. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are $10 $10 zoning? direct sales?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  30. 30. Direct Sales“Access to urban markets is crucial to farmers engaged in direct sales.” No Local Food without Local Farmland © Gardow Consulting
  31. 31. Direct Consumer Sales• Farmers’ Markets—6,132 markets in 2010• Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)—more than 2,500• U-Pick• Farm Stands/On-Site Sales• Agricultural Tourism © Gardow Consulting
  32. 32. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are $10 $10 zoning? direct sales?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights? What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  33. 33. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are $10 $10 zoning? direct sales?What is Transfer This program & Purchase of links large Development $100 $100 institutions to Rights? farms What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  34. 34. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are $10 $10 zoning? direct sales?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  35. 35. Farm to School Programs• 1996—2 pilot Farm to School Programs• 2011—2352 Farm to School Programs © Gardow Consulting
  36. 36. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are direct sales? $10 $10 zoning?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an agricultural $1000 $1000 $1000 appraisal? © Gardow Consulting
  37. 37. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are $10 $10 zoning? direct sales?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an Creating or agricultural capturing more $ $1000 $1000 appraisal? from products © Gardow Consulting
  38. 38. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are $10 $10 zoning? direct sales?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  39. 39. Value-Added Products © Gardow Consulting
  40. 40. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are $10 $10 zoning? direct sales?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  41. 41. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies 5-letter acronym What is What are for farm $10 Zoning? direct sales? organizationWhat is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  42. 42. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is $10 Zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  43. 43. WWOOF• World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms• 99 Countries with WWOOF Opportunities © Gardow Consulting
  44. 44. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is $10 zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Development to School $100 $100 Rights? programs? What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  45. 45. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is $10 zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Get a 4 year Development to School degree from $100 Rights? programs? here What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  46. 46. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is $10 zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing?What is Transfer What are Farm & Purchase of What is a land to School $100 Development grant university? programs? Rights? What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  47. 47. Sustainable Agricultural Programs• Washington State University• C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable Food Systems at Michigan State University• UC Davis Agricultural Sustainability Institute• Evergreen College Sustainable Agricultural Program Photo from Evergreen State College © Gardow Consulting
  48. 48. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is $10 zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is a land Development to School $100 grant university? Rights? programs? What is an agricultural What is value- $1000 $1000 appraisal? added? © Gardow Consulting
  49. 49. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is $10 zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is a land Development to School $100 grant university? Rights? programs? What is an Other (unpaid) agricultural What is value- opportunities to $1000 appraisal? added? learn farming © Gardow Consulting
  50. 50. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is direct sales? $10 zoning? WWOOFing?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is a land Development to School $100 grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are agricultural What is value- apprentice & $1000 appraisal? added? internship programs? © Gardow Consulting
  51. 51. Apprentice and Internship Programs © Gardow Consulting
  52. 52. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is $10 zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is a land Development to School $100 grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are What is value- apprentice & agricultural added? $1000 appraisal? internship programs? © Gardow Consulting
  53. 53. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies Public policy on What is What are What is production, zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? distribution & consumptionWhat is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is a land Development to School $100 grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are What is value- apprentice & agricultural added? $1000 appraisal? internship programs? © Gardow Consulting
  54. 54. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is What is food zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? policy?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is a land Development to School $100 grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are What is value- apprentice & agricultural $1000 added? internship appraisal? programs? © Gardow Consulting
  55. 55. Food Policy © Gardow Consulting
  56. 56. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is What is food zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? policy?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is a land Development to School $100 grant university? Rights programs? What is an What are agricultural What is value- apprentice & $1000 appraisal? added? internship programs? © Gardow Consulting
  57. 57. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is What is food zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? policy?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm Effective tool to What is a land Development to School identify prime grant university? Rights? programs? farmland What is an What are agricultural What is value- apprentice & $1000 appraisal? added? internship programs? © Gardow Consulting
  58. 58. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is What is food Zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? policy?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is the What is a land Development to School Soil Survey? grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are agricultural What is value- apprentice & $1000 appraisal? added? internship programs? © Gardow Consulting
  59. 59. Web Soil SurveyWeb Soil Survey – http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda,gov Click on Start WSS © Gardow Consulting
  60. 60. Agricultural Soil Values Prime Prime Farmland, if Prime Farmland, ifFarmland protected from protected from flooding flooding & irrigated © Gardow Consulting
  61. 61. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is What is food zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? policy?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is the What is a land Development to School Soil Survey? grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are agricultural What is value- apprentice & $1000 appraisal? added? internship programs? © Gardow Consulting
  62. 62. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is What is food Zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? policy?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is the What is a land Development to School Soil Survey? grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are This strategy agricultural What is value- apprentice & focuses appraisal? added? internship resources programs? © Gardow Consulting
  63. 63. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is What are What is What is food zoning? direct sales? WWOOFing? policy?What is Transfer & Purchase of What are Farm What is the What is a land Development to School Soil Survey? grant university? Rights? programs? What is an What are What is agricultural What is value- apprentice & coordination, appraisal? added? internship funding and programs? commitment? © Gardow Consulting
  64. 64. Vermont’s Successful Program• 1,650 parcels of land protected• More than 500,000 acres protected• Approximately 8% of private land protected• 700 working farms conserved• 15% of the prime farmland © Gardow Consulting
  65. 65. Food for Thought• Preservation• Create and expand market demand• Pay attention to succession• Food Policy and Action Plans: – Identify and map ‘food shed’ – Specify who, what, how ($)• Our own actions © Gardow Consulting
  66. 66. Reference List• American Farmland Trust, http://www.farmland.org/• Cascade Harvest Coalition, http://www.cascadeharvest.org/• Economic Research Service/USDA, http://www.ers.usda.gov/• Farm to School, www.farmtoschool.org• Gardow Consulting—Land Matters Food Matters, kathryn@gardow.com• King County Agriculture Section, www.kingcounty.gov/environment/wlr/agriculture-program.aspx• National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, www.attra.ncat.org• PCC Farmland Trust, http://www.pccfarmlandtrust.org/• Rockridge Orchards & Cidery, http://rockridgeorchards.com/• Terry’s Berries, http://terrysberries.com/• Vermont Land Trust, vlt.org• WWOOF, http://wwoof.org/ © Gardow Consulting
  67. 67. Thank you
  68. 68. Agriculture Jeopardy Preservation Market Succession Align and Act! Strategies Strategies Strategies Strategies What is $10 $10 $10 zoning?What is Transfer & Purchase of Development $100 $100 $100 Rights?What is CurrentUse Taxation? $1000 $1000 $1000 © Gardow Consulting

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