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    Accessing and Using Food Data to Support Collaborative Policy Decisions - Handout Accessing and Using Food Data to Support Collaborative Policy Decisions - Handout Document Transcript

    • Colorado Food Assessment Framework: Module 4 – Food Access, Security & Resiliency DRAFT May 21, 2011A handout for the session: “Assessing and Using Food Data to Support Collaborative Policy Decisions” atthe Community Food Security Coalition’s conference, Food Policy from Neighborhood to Nation, Portland,OR, May 19-21, 2011.Background on the Project: The Colorado Food Assessment Framework is being developed to assist theincreasing number of community and state advisory groups interested in conducting food assessments oftheir local or regional food system in order to inform food policy councils, farm to school efforts, andother policy action. The Framework consists of four modules: (1) Food Security, Resiliency and Access, (2)Food and Agriculture Production, (3) Transportation and Distribution, and (4) Food Processing. TheFramework has been developed with the intention of integrating it into an online, interactive tool toprovide a “one-stop shop” for communities to obtain guidance, easily access comprehensive foodsystems indicators, and share what they learn, thus contributing to a broader, common body ofknowledge in the state. DRAFT Document – Not for DistributionThe Colorado Food Assessment Framework is being developed by WPM Consulting and the Center for SystemsIntegration on behalf of LiveWell Colorado. This project is sponsored by the Colorado Department of PublicHealth and Environment with funding through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention, grant number FOA#90101ARRA09. For questions regarding this document, please contactwendy@WPMconsulting.com.
    • Worksheet: Planning for Your Community Food Assessment 1|Page Instructions: Before you can begin to collect data for your community food assessment, you will need to decide on the boundaries for your assessment. Use the questions on this worksheet to help guide your deliberations. Use the considerations side of the worksheet to help inform your discussions. You can either type or write your notes in the blank spaces of the worksheet table. Questions to Answer1 Considerations1. What is the purpose of your food assessment? The  Needs Assessment and Planning purpose will drive decisions about who should be to identify priorities for action in a involved in the assessment, what information is particular community. needed, how much time should be devoted to the process, what type of data to collect, and how to share  Population-level Surveillance to the findings. monitor trends in access, availability, quality, and affordability of food.  Research to gain a better understanding of the most important factors in environments affecting obesity and chronic disease.  Evaluation to improve programs or policies and to assess their effectiveness.  Advocacy to engage stakeholders and decision makers to affect policy and environmental changes in the food environment. 1Table derived from Pothukuchi, K., Joseph, H., Burton, H., & Fisher, A. (2002). What’s cooking in your food system? A guide to community food assessment. Venice, CA: Community Food Security Coalition, pages 53- 55. Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting
    • Worksheet: Planning for Your Community Food Assessment 2|Page Questions to Answer1 Considerations2. What boundaries are suggested by your assessment Boundaries can be classified in four ways. purposes, goals, and questions? Ask yourself: Most assessments include more than one category:  What’s the appropriate scale of study to encourage community participation, and where is there good 1. Political or jurisdictional: Most potential for such participation? common type of boundary used in FAs. Data are gathered based on political  How does the community define its own boundaries such as cities, counties, boundaries? Is there a cohesive community sense neighborhoods. Secondary data largely within certain boundaries? follows these boundaries.  Do you want to focus on particular ethnic and socio- 2. Service designations: These include economic groups, or a mix of groups? school districts, voting precincts, census tracts, etc. Some secondary data is only  Is the community representative of larger trends in available by service designations, e.g., the region? census tracts, therefore your FA may, by default, include this type of boundary for  Where do you expect to conduct follow-up activities some data. once the assessment is completed? 3. Ethnic/cultural/social: Some neighborhoods have distinct, known cultural centers even if not officially designated. While such boundaries can engender a cohesive understanding and engagement of a subpopulation, likely there will be few if any secondary data that falls within these boundary designations. 4. Environmental: Rivers, mountain ranges, watersheds can make for natural boundaries that are related to food systems; however, these are unlikely to match with existing data sets.Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting
    • Worksheet: Planning for Your Community Food Assessment 3|Page Questions to Answer1 Considerations3. What kinds of data do you anticipate being central to To conduct a community food assessment, your study, and what boundaries are associated with different types of data are useful. that data? 1. Secondary Data: This is data that has already been collected by other organizations, e.g., the U.S. government, state government, non-profit organizations, and universities. Sometimes this data was collected specifically to assess food system issues but oftentimes the data of interest is part of a larger effort to track trends, some of which are applicable to understanding food systems. Whenever possible, it behooves a community to utilize as much secondary data as possible. However, many communities will find that they cannot fully assess their food environment based on existing data along. In that case, primary data collection will be necessary. 2. Primary Data: Primary data refers to original data collection. There are many methods of collecting primary data including through questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, observation, and case-studies. The advantage of primary data collection is that you can tailor your instrument to capture exactly the information you need. However, the disadvantages are substantial, including the time and skill needed to construct a valid data collection instrument, and the cost of collecting, recording, coding, and analyzing the data.Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting
    • UNDERSTANDING YOUR FOOD ENVIRONMENT Using Existing Indicators to as a Starting PlaceRETAIL STORESStrategies and policies to improve the food environment can include increased access to healthier foods such as through retail vendors. Supermarketsand grocery stores typically sell a higher proportion of fruits and vegetables compared to convenience stores, gas marts and small corner stores.Research finds that adults’ fruit and vegetable intake increases with the addition of new supermarkets – specifically African Americans’ consumptionincreased by 32% for each additional supermarket and Caucasians’ increased by 11% with the presence of one or more supermarkets (Morland, Wing,& Diez Roux, 2002); yet, there are fewer supermarkets in minority and low income communities than Caucasian and higher socioeconomicneighborhoods (Morland, Wing, & Diez Roux, 2002; Morland, Wing, & Diez Roux, & Poole, 2002; Galvez et al., 2008). The lack of easy access to freshand nutritious food is considered to be a contributing factor to poorer health outcomes among minority and poor populations in the U.S. (Glanz &Yaroch, 2004).Strategies and policies to improve the food environment can include increased healthy food options, such as fresh fruit and vegetables through retailstores in the community. This can include increasing the number of supermarkets and larger grocery stores and/or improving the availability of freshfood in small retail stores including neighborhood corner stores and convenience stores. However, research finds that supermarkets and large grocerystores have lower prices than small stores, so to the extent that access to nutritious fresh food is an income barrier (rather than a transportationbarrier), large grocery stores may be more beneficial (Ver Ploeg et al., 2009). However, important “lessons learned” are arising out of pilot projectsthat bring fresh fruit and vegetables into convenience stores (Jetter & Cassady, 2010).1. Indicators for types of stores MORE likely to carry fresh fruit and vegetables: Twelve indicators provide a snapshot of the likely availability of fresh produce. Each indicator is measured at the county level. Retail Store Indicators – MORE Healthy Outlets How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Number of Grocery Stores (county level indicator): The number of supermarkets and grocery stores in the county. Grocery stores include establishments generally known as supermarkets and smaller grocery stores primarily engaged in retailing a general line of food, such as canned and frozen foods; fresh fruits and vegetables; and fresh and prepared meats, fish, and poultry. Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 1|Page
    • Retail Store Indicators – MORE Healthy Outlets How will it help us understand Food Access in our community?Percent Change in Number of Grocery Stores (county levelindicator): The percent change in the number of supermarkets andgrocery stores in the county.Grocery stores/1,000 population (county level indicator): Thenumber of supermarkets and grocery stores in the county per 1,000county residents.Percent of Change in Grocery Stores per 1,000 population(county level indicator): The percent change in the number ofsupermarkets and grocery stores in the county per 1,000 countyresidents.Number of Supercenters and Club Stores (county level indicator):The number of Supercenters and Warehouse club stores in the county.Warehouse clubs and supercenters are primarily engaged in retailing ageneral line of groceries in combination with general lines of newmerchandise, such as apparel, furniture, and appliances.Percent Change in Number of Supercenters and Club Stores(county level indicator): The percent change in the number ofsupermarkets & grocery stores in the county per 1,000 county residents.Supercenters and Club Stores/1,000 population (county levelindicator): The number of Supercenters and warehouse club stores inthe county per 1,000 county residents.Percent of Change in Supercenters and Club Stores per 1,000population (county level indicator): Percent change in the numberof supercenters & warehouse club stores in the county per 1,000residents. Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 2|Page
    • Retail Store Indicators – MORE Healthy Outlets How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Number of Specialized Food Stores (county level indicator): The number of specialized food stores in the county. Specialized food stores include establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of food such as retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, dairy stores, and produce markets. Percent Change in Number Specialized Food Stores (county level indicator): The percent change in the number of specialized food stores in the county. Specialized Food Stores per 1,000 population (county level indicator): The number of specialized food stores in the county per 1,000 county residents. Specialized food stores include establishments primarily engaged in retailing specialized lines of food such as retail bakeries, meat and seafood markets, dairy stores, and produce markets. Percent Change in Specialized Food Stores per 1,000 population (county level indicator): The percent change in the number of specialized food stores in the county per 1,000 residents.2. Indicators for types of stores LESS likely to carry fresh fruit and vegetables: Eight indicators provide a snapshot of the likely availability of fresh produce. Each indicator is measured at the county level. Retail Store Indicators – LESS Healthy Outlets How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Number of Convenience Stores, no gas (county level indicator): The number of convenience stores in the county. Establishments known as convenience stores or food marts (except those with fuel pumps) are primarily engaged in retailing a limited line of goods that generally includes milk, bread, soda, and snacks. Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 3|Page
    • Retail Store Indicators – LESS Healthy Outlets How will it help us understand Food Access in our community?% Change in Number of Convenience Stores, no gas (countylevel indicator): % change in the # of convenience stores in thecounty.Convenience Stores, no gas/1,000 population (county levelindicator): The number of convenience stores in the county per1,000 county residents.%t Change in in Convenience Stores, no gas/1,000 population(county level indicator): % change in the number of conveniencestores in the county per 1,000 county residents.Number of Convenience Stores with gas (county levelindicator): The number of gasoline-convenience stores in thecounty. Establishments known as gasoline-convenience stores areengaged in retailing automotive fuels (for example, diesel fuel,gasohol, and gasoline) in combination with convenience store or foodmart items. These establishments can either be in a convenience store(food mart) setting or a gas station setting.% Change in Number of Convenience Stores with gas (countylevel indicator): % change in the number of gasoline-conveniencestores in the county.Convenience Stores with gas/1,000 population (county levelindicator): The number of gasoline-convenience stores in the countyper 1,000 county residents.% Change in in Convenience Stores with gas/1,000 population(county level indicator): % change in the number of gasoline-convenience stores in the county per 1,000 county residents. Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 4|Page
    • 3. Indicators for types of restaurants MORE likely to carry fresh fruit and vegetables: Four indicators provide a snapshot of establishments that are more likely to offer fresh food and residents’ patronage of these establishments. Restaurant Indicators - MORE Healthy Options How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Number of Full-Service Restaurants (county level indicator): The number of full-service restaurants in the county. Full-service restaurants include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services to patrons who order and are served while seated (i.e., waiter/waitress service) and pay after eating. Full Service Restaurants/1,000 population (county level indicator): The number of full-service restaurants in the county per 1,000 county residents. Percent Change in Full Service Restaurants per 1000 population (county level indicator): Percent change in the number of full-service restaurants in the county 1,000 county residents. Restaurant Expenditures per capita (state level indicator): Average expenditures on food purchased at limited-service restaurants per person per year.4. Indicators for types of restaurants LESS likely to carry fresh fruit and vegetables: Five indicators provide a snapshot of establishments that are less likely to offer fresh food and residents’ patronage of these establishments. Restaurant Indicators - LESS Healthy Options How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Number of Fast Food Restaurants (county level indicator): The number of limited-service restaurants in the county. Limited- service restaurants include establishments primarily engaged in providing food services (except snack and nonalcoholic beverage bars) where patrons generally order or select items and pay before eating. Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 5|Page
    • Restaurant Indicators - LESS Healthy Options How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Percent Change in Number of Fast Food Restaurants (county level indicator): Percent change in the number of limited-service restaurants in the county 1,000 county residents. Fast Food Restaurants/1,000 population (county level indicator): The number of limited-service restaurants in the county per 1,000 county residents. Percent Change in Fast Food Restaurants per 1000 Population (county level indicator): Percent change in limited- service restaurants in the county per 1,000 county residents. Fast Food Expenditures per capita (state level indicator): Average expenditures on food purchased at limited-service restaurants per person per year.DIRECT MARKETSDirect markets cut out the “middle man” or, in food system terminology, the wholesaler or distributor is not needed. Consumers buy directly from theproducer or are themselves part of the production system through gardening programs.5. Farmers’ MarketsFarmers’ markets connect farmers (or their employees/representatives) directly with the consumer to sell fresh food products. Farmers’ markets havefreshly harvested local produce, food products such as fish and meat, and many also sell prepared foods usually made by local restaurants. Somefarmers markets include nonfood items, have informational booths (e.g., Master Gardeners providing information on backyard composting), and livemusic. Farmers’ Markets are often considered not only an outlet for bringing fresh local produce into a community but also a venue that helps buildsocial capital and increases food systems literacy through conversations between the farmer and buyer. Two indicators track farmers’ markets. Direct Market Indicators – Farmers’ Markets How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 6|Page
    • Direct Market Indicators – Farmers’ Markets How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? # Farmers markets (county level indicator): Number of farmers’ markets in the county. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of their retail sales are derived directly from consumers. Farmers market/1,000 pop (county level indicator): Number of farmers’ markets in the county per 1,000 county residents. A farmer’s market is a retail outlet in which two or more vendors sell agricultural products directly to customers through a common marketing channel. At least 51 percent of their retail sales are derived directly from consumers.6. Direct Farm SalesCommunity supported agriculture (CSA) is a direct buying relationship between the consumer and farmer. Consumers buy “shares” in advance of thegrowing season in exchange for a regular delivery (weekly, biweekly, monthly) of in-season crops produced by the farm. Farm products are generallydelivered by the farm to drop off sites in one or more neighborhoods. CSAs provide more income stability for farmers, which can be particularlyimportant for the viability of small farms. CSAs are the most common arrangement of direct farm sales, however, other methods include roadsidestands and Neighborhood Supported Agriculture (NSA), the latter still in its infancy.1 Five indicators track direct farm sales. Direct Market Indicators – Direct Farm Sales How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? # Farms with direct sales (county level indicator): Number of farms in the county that sell directly to final consumers. 1 Agriburbia is another type of direct farm sales model. For information click on Agriburbia and the Denver Post article about Agriburbia on Colorado’s Front Range Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 7|Page
    • Direct Market Indicators – Direct Farm Sales How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? % Farms with direct sales (county level indicator): Percent of farms in the county that sell directly to final consumers. $ Direct farm sales (county level indicator): Value of direct farm sales in the county. $ Direct farm sales per capita (county level indicator): Value of direct farm sales in the county divided by the residents of the county. Number of Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) (directory of registered CSAs in Colorado): Searchable by name, county location, and cities served. Includes phone numbers and farm website links, if any.7. Farm to School ProgramsFarm to School programs bring local produce (fruit and vegetables) and products (dairy, eggs, meat) into school meal and snackprograms. There has been a recent uptick in the number of FTS programs across the country, Colorado included. FTS programs gohand in hand with improvements in school nutritional offerings, an important dietary shift for children of all income brackets butespecially critical for children and teens from low income households whose only nutritious meals may be at school. There areseveral databases that have information about farm to school programs. However, none are exhaustive. To get started, pull thethree indicators below. Direct Market Indicators – FTS Programs How will it help us understand Food Access in our community? Farm to school program (county level indicator, locational – CO-FTS): Counties with one or more farm-to-school programs where “farm-to-school” programs include: direct sourcing from local producers, local sourcing through the Department of Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 8|Page
    • Direct Market Indicators – FTS Programs How will it help us understand Food Access in our community?Defense procurement system (known as “DOD Fresh”), schoolgardens, farm tours, farm-related nutrition education or otherclassroom activities, and school menus and snacks highlightinglocally-sourced or locally-available foods.Number of schools with educational gardens (locational –CO-FTS): School gardens serve educational functions to teachchildren about food production. Some schools serve theirgarden’s produce in cafeteria mealsPercentage of middle & high schools that offer fruits andnon-fried vegetables as competitive foods. (state levelindicator – CDC; district indicator - local school district foodservices). Prepared by the Center for Systems Integration and WPM Consulting 9|Page