TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGEHARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM            Compiled by           Dr Chook Ka Joo    Quality Assurance...
CONTENTS                              Page1.0   INTRODUCTION                            12.0   THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING RE...
TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE                       HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM1.0      INTRODUCTIONReferencing or citing mean...
The referencing system used in TAR College is the Harvard System for all of theSchools except the School of Social Science...
Saunders (2003, p.21) claims that there are many factors that are known       to affect the success of students at the ter...
5.3    When there are four or more authors for a reference, you need to include       all their names in your first in-tex...
5.6   Writing convention      The following conventions are not prescribed by national or international      standards but...
6.0   THE REFERENCE LIST6.1   The reference list in the Harvard system:      •   is titled ‘References’      •   is arrang...
•     For the publisher’s name, omit superfluous terms such as ‘Publishers’,            ‘Co.’ or ‘Inc.’ but always retain ...
6.7.2 Example of an academic journalThe main elements required for referencing a journal article are set out inthis order:...
7.0    EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING7.1    Books       Basic format for books:       Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. Tit...
Electronic book      Gottshalk and Solli-sather (2006) Gottschalk, P. and Solli-saether, H. 2006. Managing successful IT  ...
7.2    Journal articles       Basic format for journal articles:       Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. ‘Title of a...
A World Wide          The result of the test can … Potter, J. 2005. The big five personality test. Viewed on 11 July 2007....
7.3      Special publications and materials         Basic format:         Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of...
Pamphlet or          TAR College’s philosophy is … TAR College Prospectus 2007/2008. Kuala Lumpur: Tunku Abdul Rahmanbroch...
7.4   Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)      Here are some of the FAQs on referencing.      Question 1      If I read a bo...
For example:    In a recent publication, Bart (2004b) argued that mission statements of    most organization are underutil...
pictures, graphs or figures. You also need to make it clear if you haveadapted the picture or graph for your own purposes....
However, for Malay and Indian names, use the writers’ full names in boththe in-text citation and reference list.For exampl...
REFERENCESCurtin University Library. 2007. Harvard referencing. Viewed on 4 July 2007.     Available from: <http://library...
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  1. 1. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGEHARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM Compiled by Dr Chook Ka Joo Quality Assurance Department Tunku Abdul Rahman College and Mr Johnny Chin Fui Chung Extra-Mural Studies Department Tunku Abdul Rahman College 2008
  2. 2. CONTENTS Page1.0 INTRODUCTION 12.0 THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCES 13.0 REFERENCING SYSTEM 14.0 THE HARVARD SYSTEM 25.0 CITATION IN THE TEXT 26.0 THE REFERENCE LIST 67.0 EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING 9REFERENCES
  3. 3. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM1.0 INTRODUCTIONReferencing or citing means acknowledging the source of information and ideasyou have used in your assignment (e.g. essay, report, project, research paper,etc.). This is a standard practice at all institutions of higher learning includingTunku Abdul Rahman (TAR) College.This learning guide on Harvard referencing system was developed based on thefollowing references:• Curtin University Library. 2007. Harvard referencing.• Fisher, D. and Hanstock, T. 1998. Citing references.• Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2005. Research methods for business students.• University of Bournemouth. 2005. Citing references.• University of South Australia. 2006. Referencing using the Harvard author– date system.2.0 THE IMPORTANCE OF CITING REFERENCESThe following are reasons why referencing is needed:• to acknowledge debts to other writers• to demonstrate the body/scope of knowledge upon which your research is based on• to enable all those who read your work to locate the sources easilyMore importantly, by using appropriate references, you will show the breadth andquality of your assignment and avoid plagiarism. For further details on plagiarism,please refer to the TAR College guide on Avoiding Plagiarism.3.0 REFERENCING SYSTEMThe two most common types of referencing systems used are:i. Author-date system such as the Harvard System, APA (American Psychological Association) and MLA (Modern Languages Association)ii. Numerical system such as the Chicago or Turabian, Vancouver and footnote. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 1
  4. 4. The referencing system used in TAR College is the Harvard System for all of theSchools except the School of Social Science and Humanities, which is using theAPA system.4.0 THE HARVARD SYSTEMIn the Harvard System, cited publications are referred to as citation in the text bygiving the author’s family name and the year of publication and the details arelisted in the reference list at the end of the text/work (see page 9 for examples).The process of citing references consists of two inter-related parts:i. Citing - the way a writer refers from the text to the sources used in the assignment.ii. Referencing - the process of creating a reference list of each source a writer has used in writing the assignment.All statements, opinions, conclusion, etc. taken from another writer’s work shouldbe cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised.5.0 CITATION IN THE TEXTWhen writing a piece of work, you will need to refer to materials written orproduced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. Thesystem that you have used to cite the sources must be consistent and accurateto enable readers to identify and locate the materials to which you have referredto. The same set of rules should be followed every time you cite a reference.When you cite references in the text of your assignment include:• the author or editor’s family name (or organisation responsible) - do NOT include given names or initials• the year of publication• page(s) of publication (if appropriate and where available)5.1 In many cases, you just need to use the author’s family name and date. For example: Many factors are known to affect the success of students at the tertiary education level (Saunders, 2005). OR TAR College Harvard Referencing System 2
  5. 5. Saunders (2003, p.21) claims that there are many factors that are known to affect the success of students at the tertiary education level. In these two examples, the sentences summarise the main view expressed in an article written by Saunders, which is not taken from one single page of the source. Also note that the first example highlights the information but the second example highlights or gives prominence to the author of the article. i. If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, the year is given in parentheses: In a popular study, Harvey (2005) argued that we have to teach good practices… As Harvey (1992, p.21) said, ‘good practices must be taught’ and so we … ii. If the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and year are given in parentheses: A more recent study (Stevens, 2002) has shown the way theory and practical work interact… Theory rises out of practice, and once validated, returns to direct or explain the practice (Stevens, 2002).5.2 There are cases when you need to include a page number in the parentheses. For example: Ramli (2006, p.7) showed that 63 percent of workers was found to be affected by work-related stress. You need to include the page number when you: i. use a direct quote from an original source ii. summarise an idea from a particular page iii. include tables, figures, charts or illustrations from other sources in your work Use ‘p.’ when you are citing the information from a single page and ‘pp.’ when the information is cited from more than one page. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 3
  6. 6. 5.3 When there are four or more authors for a reference, you need to include all their names in your first in-text citation of their work. When the same source is cited again, use ‘et al.’ (which is Latin for ‘and the others’). Saunders, Jones, Cooper and Steinmark (2006, p.7) postulate that 54 percent of the students do not use proper referencing system… As a result of this, Saunders et al. (2006) listed a few major problems that students face in doing project work. The names of all the authors are listed in the reference list in the same order they are listed in the original reference.5.4 Personal communication such as interviews, telephone calls, video conferencing and internet chat do not provide recoverable data; therefore, they are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communication in the text citation only. Provide initials as well as the family name (full name for Asians) of the communicator and provide the exact date. Many designers do not understand the needs of the young people according to Toi See Luon (personal communication, 19 April 2007) 5.5 Additional Information Quotations – As a rule, if the quote is less than a line, it may be included in the body of the text in quotation marks. Summaries or paraphrases – Give the citation where it occurs naturally or at the end of the relevant piece of writing. Tables, charts, diagrams or illustrations – These should be referenced as though they were a quotation if they have been taken from a published work. If details of particular parts of a document are required, e.g. page numbers, they should be given after the year within the parentheses. Rules for citation in text for printed documents also apply to electronic documents except where pagination is absent. If an electronic document does not include pagination or an equivalent internal referencing system, the extent of the item may be indicated in terms such as the total number of lines, screens, etc., e.g. “[21 lines]” or “[approx 8 screens]”. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 4
  7. 7. 5.6 Writing convention The following conventions are not prescribed by national or international standards but have been included because they are usually adhered to by the academic community. If you are quoting a few words, the usual practice is as follows: Example A: Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2003, p.93) argued that grounded theory is best defined as ‘theory building’ compared to the assertion of Glaser and Strauss (1967) of inductive approach to research. Example B: Robson (2002, p.178) defines case study as ‘a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon [current issues] …using multiple sources of evidence.’ The quotation forms part of your text and is indicated by enclosing it using either single apostrophe ‘ ’ or double apostrophe “ ”. • The … indicates word or words from the original source have been left out. • Square brackets [ ] tell your reader you have added your own words to the quotation. • If you are quoting a longer quotation, it is a common practice for the whole quotation to be indented: “There is no doubt that Internet technology has changed and is changing the way organizations do business. Using the Internet, companies have, for instance, (1) created knowledge bases that employees can tap into anytime, anywhere; (2) turned customers into collaborated partners who design, test and launch new products; (3) become virtually paperless in specific tasks such as purchasing and filling expense reports; (4) managed logistics in real time; and (5) changed the nature of numerous work tasks throughout the organization …” (Robbins & Coulter, 2005, p.197) TAR College Harvard Referencing System 5
  8. 8. 6.0 THE REFERENCE LIST6.1 The reference list in the Harvard system: • is titled ‘References’ • is arranged alphabetically by author’s family name • is a single list – books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together and not arranged in a separate list • includes the full details of your citation in the text • is NOT a bibliography – you do not need to produce a bibliography for your assignments unless specifically asked to do so by your lecturer. A bibliography lists everything you may have read but did NOT use it in the course of doing the assignment while a reference list is limited to the citation in the text references used in your assignment.6.2 Steps involved in referencing a. Note down the full details of the source including page number from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, the details included are author(s) of the book, year, title, edition, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. In the case of a journal article, the details included are author(s) of the article, date of publication, title of article, title of journal, volume and issue number of journal and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above, you should note the date you accessed the information and database or website address (URL). b. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document. c. Provide a reference list at the end of your assignment.6.3 Whenever possible, elements needed for the reference list should be taken from the title page of the publication. • For place of publication, provide the city. • If more than one town/city is listed, list the first one or the location of the publisher’s head office. • If the town is not well known, you may add a county, region or state. Note that in the United States of America, states are denoted by a two- letter code, for example ‘Hillsdale, NJ’. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 6
  9. 9. • For the publisher’s name, omit superfluous terms such as ‘Publishers’, ‘Co.’ or ‘Inc.’ but always retain the word ‘Books’ or ‘Press’. • Where the publisher is a university and the place or the location is not included in the name of the university, do not repeat the place of publication.6.4 Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the following examples for the different types of work you may have cited. Underlining is an acceptable alternative to italics when references are handwritten.6.5 The reference list is arranged alphabetically by authors’ family names. When an item has no author (e.g. newspaper report, annual company report, brochure), it is cited by its title and sequenced in the reference list by the first significant word of the title.6.6 The Harvard System requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented to highlight the alphabetical order.6.7 Setting out the items in a Reference List using the Harvard Referencing System The main elements required for a reference are set out in this order: 6.7.1 Example of a book The main elements required for referencing a book are set out in this order: Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Author’s family name Year of publication Title of the book in followed by a comma, followed by a full italics followed by a full then initial(s) followed stop - no brackets stop - upper case used by a full stop only for the first word Cameron, S. 2002. Business student’s handbook: Learning skills for study and employment. Harlow: Prentice Hall. Place of publication Publisher followed followed by a colon by a full stop TAR College Harvard Referencing System 7
  10. 10. 6.7.2 Example of an academic journalThe main elements required for referencing a journal article are set out inthis order:Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. ‘Title of article’. Title of journal. Volume number and (issue or part number), page number. Author’s family name Year of publication Title of the article in single followed by a comma, followed by a full inverted comma - upper then initial(s) followed stop - no brackets case for the first word only, by a full stop full stop after the second inverted commaBilosvalavo, R. and Lynn, M. 2006. ‘Mission statements in Slovene enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation’. Management Decision., 45(4), pp.773-788. Page number (pp) of Title of the journal Volume Issue number in a the article followed in italics followed number of bracket followed by a full stop at the by a full stop the journal by a comma end6.7.3 Example of an electronic publicationThe main elements required for referencing an electronic publication areset out in this order:Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of document or website. Date viewed. Full address <url>. Author’s family name Year of publication Title of the article in italics, followed by a comma, followed by a full followed by a full stop - then initial(s) followed stop - no brackets upper case used for first by a full stop wordPotter, J. 2005. The big five personality test. Viewed on 11 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive>. The internet address (URL) is enclosed in < Date the document is and > with the full address and followed by a accessed followed by a full stop full stop TAR College Harvard Referencing System 8
  11. 11. 7.0 EXAMPLES OF REFERENCING7.1 Books Basic format for books: Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. An example of citation in the Books The entry in the reference list textSingle author A key factor in good exam Cameron, S. 2002. Business student’s handbook: Learning skills for study technique … (Cameron, 2002, and employment. Harlow: Prentice Hall. p.158) Khoo, K. K. 1977. The western Malay states. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford Khoo (1977, p.45) argues that … University Press.Two or three According to Kim and Mauborgne Kim, W. C. and Mauborgne, R. 2005. Blue ocean strategy: How to createauthors (2005), … uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant. Boston: Harvard Business School. Guelich, S., Gundavaram, S. and Birznieks, G. 2000. CGI programming with pel. Cambridge: O’Reilly.Four or more As suggested by Sandler et al. Sandler, M. P., Patton, J. A., Coleman, R. E., Gottschalk, A., Wackers, F.authors (1995, p.14) … J. and Hoffere, P. B. 1995. Diagnostic nuclear medicine. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Leeders, S. R., Dobson, A. J., Gibbers, R. W., Patel, N. K., Mathews, P. S., The industry … (Leeders et al., Williams, A. and Marriot, D. L. 1996. The Australian film industry. 1996) Adelaide: Dominion.Book with no As shown in Networking Essential Networking essential plus. 2000. 3rd edn. Redmond: Microsoft Press.author Plus (2000), …Book with no date This has been emphasized by Seah, R. n.d. Micro-computer applications. Redmond: Microsoft Press. Seah (n.d.) when … . TAR College Harvard Referencing System 9
  12. 12. Electronic book Gottshalk and Solli-sather (2006) Gottschalk, P. and Solli-saether, H. 2006. Managing successful IT contend that … outsourcing relationship. Viewed 30 July 2007. Available from <http://site.elibrary.com/lib/tarc/docuement/display.jsp?docID=1008436 &page=1>.Translated book Popularity of the novel ‘Les Cocteau, J. 1961. Les enfantrs terribles, trans. R Lehmann. Penguin: Enfants Terribles’ increased after London. Translation (Cocteau, 1961)Second edition or … Walpole and Evans (eds, 2001) Walpole, M. and Evans, C. (eds). 2001. Tax administration in the 21stlater edition of a question whether century. St Leonards, New South Wales: Prospect Media.book If there is only one editor, use the abbreviation ‘ed’.Edited book – The instrument must … (Jones Jones’ Instrument Technology. 1985. Mechanical measurement. London:editor’s work not Instrument Technology, 1985). Butterworth.paramount Singapore 2001. edn, Rodan, G. Ashgate: Aldershot.One volume of a It has been implied (Einax, 1995) Einax, J. 1995. Chemometrics in environmental chemistry: Applications.multi-volume set that … Vol. 2. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Berlin: Springer.of booksChapter in an Ezhar (2001) notes that … Ezhar, T. 2001. ‘Working with foreigners’. In Asma Abdullah and Aric Low.edited book (eds). Understanding Malaysian workforce. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute of Management, pp.179-196.Encyclopaedia or Collins Cobuild English Dictionary No entry is required in the reference list because you have the name anddictionary - with (1995) defines ethics as … date of the dictionary in the in-text citation.no authorEncyclopaedia or Hawkins (1997, p.128) defines Hawkins, J. G. 1995. Kamus dwibahasa Oxford Fajar. 2nd edn. Kualadictionary - with ethics as … Lumpur: Fajar Bakti.author TAR College Harvard Referencing System 10
  13. 13. 7.2 Journal articles Basic format for journal articles: Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. ‘Title of article’. Title of journal, Volume number, Issue, Page no. An example of citation in the Journal The entry in the reference list textSingle author Ho (2007, p.2) argues that … Ho, S. 2007. ‘Knowledge sharing - a fear factor’. Malaysian Management Review. 42 (2), pp 1-22.Two or three Bilosvalavo and Lynn (2006, Bilosvalavo, R. and Lynn, M. 2006. ‘Mission statements in Sloveneauthors p.774) acknowledge … enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation’. Management Decision. 45(4), pp.773-788. The impact of IT … (Li and Li, G. and Clifford, N. 2007. ‘When a talking computer agent is half human Clifford, 2007, p.163). and half humanoid’. Human Communication Research. 33(2), pp.163- 193.More than four 2nd citation onwards George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A. N. and Mayer, D. 2007. ‘Discovering yourauthors authentic leadership’. Harvard Business Review. 85(2), pp.129-138. George et al. (2007) claim that …Journal article It is a growing problem in the UK Anorexia nervosa. 1969. British Medical Journal. 10(2), pp.529-536.with no author (Anorexia Nervosa, p.530)…Electronic book Holland (2004) maintains that … Holland, M. 2004. Guide to citing internet sources [online]. Poole, Bournemouth University. Viewed on 10 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/using/guide_to_citing_internet _source.html>.Journal article … and this has been established Eisend, M. and Schucherta, P. 2006. ‘Explaining counterfeit purchases: Afrom an electronic by Eisend and Schucherta (2006). review and preview’. Academy of Marketing Service. Vol. 2006 (2).journal using Viewed on 31 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.amsreview.org/electronic articles/eisend12-2006pdf>.database TAR College Harvard Referencing System 11
  14. 14. A World Wide The result of the test can … Potter, J. 2005. The big five personality test. Viewed on 11 July 2007.Web site (Potter, 2005). Available from: <http:// www.outofservice.com/bigfive>.Document on Harvard referencing is a format of Wikipedia. 2007. ‘Harvard referencing’. Viewed on 23 July 2007. AvailableWorld Wide Web … (Wikipedia, 2007). from: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/harvard_referencing>.with no authorElectronic thesis Crain (2000) postulates that … Crain, J. 2000. ‘The effects of a formal induction program on newly hired teachers’ perceptions on self-efficacy’. Department of Teaching and Leadership, University of Kansas. Viewed on 30 July 2007. UMI Proquest Dissertation ATT990068.<http://proquest.umi.com.newdc. oum.edu.my/pqdweb?index=1&did=728423791&SrchMode=1&sid=3&F mt=14&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=118 5859215&clientId=56581>.Media releases on Ong (2007) notes that sustainable Ong, K. T. (Minister of Housing and Local Government). 2007. ‘Sustainablethe World Wide living … living in Malaysia’. 16 June 2007. Ministry of Housing and LocalWeb Government. Kuala Lumpur. Viewed on 30 July 2007. Available from: <http://aplikasi.kpkt.gov.my/ucapan.nsf>.Discussion lists or Marsh (2007) postulates that … Marsh, A. 2007. “What are these?’List server. Google Recreationalnewsgroups Gardens. Viewed on 30 July 2007. Available from: <http://groups.google.com/group/rec.gardens/browse_thread/thread/e0e c899d3facbe61/2956944565b8e75c#2956944565b8e75c>.email Amir (2007) confirmed this by Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personal email on 1 July 2007… email messages are not included in a reference list.Computer A programme was developed … MathWorks. 2001. MATLAB. Ver 6. computer programs. Natick, MA: Theprogram (MathWorks, 2001). MathWorks Inc.CD ROMs and Hawkings (1994) states that … Hawking, S.W. 1994. A brief history of time: An interactive adventure. [CD-DVDs ROM]. Crunch Media. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 12
  15. 15. 7.3 Special publications and materials Basic format: Author’s family name, Initial(s). Year. Title of item, description of item. Place of publication: Publisher. An example of citation in the Example The entry in the reference list textConference paper It has been shown (Chang, Chang, C. C. 2003. ‘Malaysia’s outline perspective plan towards prosperity 2003) that … in the trend of globalisation’, Proceedings of the Seventh World Chinese Entrepreneurs Convention, 21 - 26 July 2003, Sunway Resort, Petaling Jaya. The Associated Chinese Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Chang (2003) contends that … Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: ACCIM.Newspaper article As Fernandez (2007) notes in Fernandez, T. 2007. ‘I didn’t make any threats: Kayveas’. The Sun. 31 Julywith author his articles, … 2007, pp.2.Newspaper article …in The Sun (31 July 2007, The Sun. 31 July 2007. ‘Master plan boost for northern corridor’, pp.3.with no author p.3).Publication from a The plans include … Unesco. 1995. General information programme and UNISIST. Paris:corporate body (UNESCO,1995). Unesco. Genting Berhad. 2007. Genting Berhad annual report 2006. Kuala Lumpur: Genting Berhad.Government article The strategic approaches Ministry of Agriculture. 1998. ‘The third national agriculture policy’. Kuala include… Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture. (Third National Agriculture Policy 1998-2010, 1998).Patent Tadayuki, Kazuhsia and Atushi Tadayuki, O., Kazuhsia,Y. and Atsushi, N. 1999. Hard butter composition (1999) show that … and its production. Japanese Patent 99-78710. Aziz, A. 1997. Methods and apparatus for a key management scheme for interent protocols. United States Patent Application 68-438.Video or television The process involves 3 stages MIG Welding. 1987. ‘Mild steel with low current’. Video recording.recording … (MIG Welding, 1987). Cambridge: Welding Institute. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 13
  16. 16. Pamphlet or TAR College’s philosophy is … TAR College Prospectus 2007/2008. Kuala Lumpur: Tunku Abdul Rahmanbrochure (TAR College Prospectus, College. 2007).Audio cassette The original broadcast (War of War of the worlds. 1999. Mercury Theatre on the air. Audio CD. Radio the Worlds, 1999) in 1938 is Spirits. Asin. said to have caused mass panic amongst listeners.Standard The standards set by SIRIM SIRIM. 2003. ‘Code of practices for access of disabled persons outside (2003) states that … buildings’. MS13311:2003. Shah Alam: SIRIM Berhad.Personal It has been confirmed by Seow Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personalcommunication (2007, personal communication, email messages are not included in a reference list. 10 July 2007) that this practice … is widespread.Thesis Lee (1995) recommends that … Lee, C.W. 1995. Characteristics of rubber products for mining applications. Unpublished Final Year Advanced Diploma Project. Advanced Diploma in Material Engineering. School of Technology. Tunku Abdul Rahman College. MF06983.Document on Ball, Lee, Phan and Ra (2001) Ball, K., Lee, Y.H., Phan, O. and Ra, Y. S. 2001. Adult retraining andmicrofiche suggest that … reskilling in Australia and South Korea. National Centre for Vocational Education Research. Leabrook (Australia) and Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (Seoul). ERIC microfiche ED451368.Acts of Parliament The Service Tax (Amendments, Service Tax (Amendments). 2002. 2000) states that … Industrial Relations Act. 1967. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 14
  17. 17. 7.4 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Here are some of the FAQs on referencing. Question 1 If I read a book or a journal article by one author (Author 1) and he mentions an idea by another author (Author 2), whose idea do I refer to? How do I reference that? You must mention both authors (Author 1 and Author 2) in your in-text citations; and in your reference list, you only need to list the item you have read, that is Author 1. For example, if you read about an idea by Lim (Author 2) in a book by Saunders (Author 1), you need to mention both the authors in your in-text citations. Your in-text citations would appear as: Lim (Saunders, 2003, p.71) states that … or Lim’s study (cited in Saunders, 2003, p.71) indicates that … or Saunders (2003, p.71), in reporting Lim’s study, emphasized the aspect … In the reference list, you list only Saunders’ (the source you read) and not Lim’s (whose idea you only read about in Saunders’). Question 2 How do I cite the authors’ names if they have the same family name in the reference list? How do I show in my in-text reference which idea belongs to which author? You distinguish between the two authors in your assignment by adding their initials to the in-text reference (which usually only has the family name and date). For example: The theory was first suggested in 1970 (Johnson, H. T., 1971) but since then, many researchers, including Johnson, D. E. (2001), have rejected the idea. Question 3 How do I cite an author who has written more than one work in the same year? How do I show which idea comes from which reference? You put a lower case letter of the alphabet next to the year or date and keep these letters in your reference list as well. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 15
  18. 18. For example: In a recent publication, Bart (2004b) argued that mission statements of most organization are underutilised and most organization had jumped on the bandwagon of creating mission statements without knowing the true purpose of the statement (Bart, 2004a).The order of sequence in which you attach the letters is based on thealphabetical order of the title of the work by the author.Question 4How do I cite information from my lectures, tutorials or studyguides?You do NOT cite your lectures, tutorials or study guides as sources unlessyour lecturer has particularly said this is acceptable. This is becauselectures, tutorials and study guides are intended to give you anintroduction to a topic. In assignments where you undertake research,you are expected to read widely and identify for yourself the main ideasthat are relevant from various sources. In addition, oral communication isnot generally referenced. Your lecturers and tutors do not reference theircomments. If you cite them as your source of an idea, it could beinaccurate, possibly even plagiarism, because the lecturers might bereferring to someone else’s idea, not one of their own.Question 5What if I cannot find the author or a date in a website?• When there is no name on a webpage, look for a sponsoring body like an organisation or a government department responsible for the information.• Where there is no sponsoring body, use the title of the article or document on the screen as the ‘author’.• Where there is no date, use ‘n.d.’ (no date).If a resource has no author and no date, you need to consider whether it isa suitable source for academic work, as your work will suffer from lack ofcredibility.Question 6How do I reference a graph or a figure that I copy or adapt?A basic principle of Harvard referencing is providing the author and dateas an in-text reference. This also applies when you use other people’s TAR College Harvard Referencing System 16
  19. 19. pictures, graphs or figures. You also need to make it clear if you haveadapted the picture or graph for your own purposes.For example: The Process (AACSB, 2006, p.6)Question 7How do I cite Malaysian or Asian names?You will need to be aware of the various ways to cite Asian names. ForChinese and Japanese names, use the writers’ family names when youare citing them in your text. As for your reference list, put the writers’family names first followed by their initials.For example: Full name In-text citation Reference List Chinese Name Sheng Ye Lin Sheng (2003) Sheng, Y. L.. 2003. The Chinese dilemma. New South Wales: East West Ltd. Japanese Name Tatsyo Kimbara Kimbara (2007) Kimbara, T. 2007. The digital collapse. London: Penguin. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 17
  20. 20. However, for Malay and Indian names, use the writers’ full names in boththe in-text citation and reference list.For example: Full name In-text citation Reference List Malay Name Mahathir Mahathir Mahathir Mohammad. 1982. The Malay Mohammad Mohammad dilemma. Petaling Jaya: Federal (1982) Publications. Indian Name Bala Ramasamy Bala Bala Ramasamy. 2003. ‘FDI and Ramasamy uncertainty: The Malaysian case (2004) study’. Journal of Asia Pacific Economy. 20(2). pp.75-79.For names of other Asian writers such as Thai names, Cambodian names,etc., you need to find out how other writers within your academic world citethese names. Always refer to current journals or publications to see howthese Asian names are cited. If you are still unsure about this, refer tovarious refecencing guides which are available online.Question 8In the reference list, do I separate the various sources of referencesthat I have used in my in-text citations?All references that you have referred to in your assignment or projectshould be arranged in alphabetical order in one list with NO separation ofthe sources into categories like books, journals, etc. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 18
  21. 21. REFERENCESCurtin University Library. 2007. Harvard referencing. Viewed on 4 July 2007. Available from: <http://library.curtin.edu.au/referencing/harvard.pdf>.Fisher, D. and Hanstock, T. 1998. Citing references. Nottingham: Balckwell’s Bookshops.Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2005. Research methods for businessstudents. 3rd edn. Harlow: Prentice Hall.University of Bournemouth. 2005. Citing references. Viewed on 4 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/ docs/Citing_Refs.pdf>.University of South Australia. 2006. Referencing using the Harvard author-date system. Viewed on 4 July 2007. Available from: <http://www.unisanet.unisa. edu.au/learningconnection/student/learningAdvisors/documents/harvard- referencing.pdf>. TAR College Harvard Referencing System 19

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