Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements
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Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements

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Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements Presentation Transcript

  • Grouping the Elements
    Chapter 5.2
  • Objectives:
    Explain why elements in a group often have similar properties.
    Describe the properties of the elements in the groups of the periodic table.
  • Group 1: Alkali Metals
    • Alkali metals are elements in Group 1 of the periodic table. Alkali metal properties:
    • group contains metals
    • 1 electron in the outer level
    • very reactive
    • softness
    • color of silver
    • shininess
    • low density
  • Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals
    • Alkaline-earth metals are elements in Group 2.
    • Alkaline-earth metal properties:
    • group contains metals
    • 2 electrons in the outer level
    • very reactive, but less reactive than alkali metals
    • color of silver, higher densities than alkali metals
  • Group 3–12: Transition Metals
    • Transition metals are inGroups 3–12. Some of the transition metals are shown below.
    Au
    Zn
    Cu
    Hg
  • Group 3–12: Transition Metals
    • Properties of Transition Metalsvary widely but include:
    • groups contains metals
    • 1 or 2 electrons in the outer level
    • less reactive than alkaline-earth metals
    • shininess, good conductors of electric current and thermal energy
  • Lanthanides and Actinides
    • Some transition metals from Periods 6 and 7 appear in two rows at the bottom of the periodic table. Elements in the first row are called lanthanides and elements in the second row are called actinides.
  • Group 13: Boron Group
    • Aluminum is the most common element from Group 13.
    • Group 13 properties:
    • group contains one metalloid and five metals
    • 3 electrons in the outer level
    • reactive
    • solids at room temperature
    B
    Ga
    Al
    In
  • Group 14: Carbon Group
    • Group 14 properties:
    • group contains one nonmetal, two metalloids, and two metals
    • 4 electrons in the outer level
    • reactivity varies among the elements
    • solids at room temperature
    C
    Ge
    Pb
    Sn
    Si
  • Group 15: Nitrogen Group
    Group 15 properties:
    • group contains two nonmetals, two metalloids, and two metals
    • 5 electrons in the outer level
    • reactivity varies among the elements
    • solids at room temperature (except for nitrogen, which is a gas)
  • Group 16: Oxygen Group
    Group 16 properties:
    • group contains three nonmetals, one metalloids, and one metal
    • 6 electrons in the outer level
    • reactive
    • solids at room temperature (except for oxygen, which is a gas)
  • Group 17: Halogens
    • Halogens are the elements in Group 17.
    Group 17 properties:
    • group contains nonmetals
    • 7 electrons in the outer level
    • very reactive
    • poor conductors of electric current, never in uncombined form in nature
  • Group 18: Noble Gases
    Noble gasesare the elements in Group 18.
    • Group 18 properties:
    • group contains nonmetals
    • 8 electrons in the outer level (except helium, which has 2)
    • unreactive
    • colorless, odorless gases at room temperature
  • Hydrogen
    The properties of hydrogen do not match the properties of any single group, so hydrogen is set apart.
    • a nonmetal
    • 1 electron in the outer level
    • reactive
    • colorless, odorless gas at room temperature, low density