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Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements
 

Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements

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    Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements Physical science 5.2 : Grouping Of Elements Presentation Transcript

    • Grouping the Elements
      Chapter 5.2
    • Objectives:
      Explain why elements in a group often have similar properties.
      Describe the properties of the elements in the groups of the periodic table.
    • Group 1: Alkali Metals
      • Alkali metals are elements in Group 1 of the periodic table. Alkali metal properties:
      • group contains metals
      • 1 electron in the outer level
      • very reactive
      • softness
      • color of silver
      • shininess
      • low density
    • Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals
      • Alkaline-earth metals are elements in Group 2.
      • Alkaline-earth metal properties:
      • group contains metals
      • 2 electrons in the outer level
      • very reactive, but less reactive than alkali metals
      • color of silver, higher densities than alkali metals
    • Group 3–12: Transition Metals
      • Transition metals are inGroups 3–12. Some of the transition metals are shown below.
      Au
      Zn
      Cu
      Hg
    • Group 3–12: Transition Metals
      • Properties of Transition Metalsvary widely but include:
      • groups contains metals
      • 1 or 2 electrons in the outer level
      • less reactive than alkaline-earth metals
      • shininess, good conductors of electric current and thermal energy
    • Lanthanides and Actinides
      • Some transition metals from Periods 6 and 7 appear in two rows at the bottom of the periodic table. Elements in the first row are called lanthanides and elements in the second row are called actinides.
    • Group 13: Boron Group
      • Aluminum is the most common element from Group 13.
      • Group 13 properties:
      • group contains one metalloid and five metals
      • 3 electrons in the outer level
      • reactive
      • solids at room temperature
      B
      Ga
      Al
      In
    • Group 14: Carbon Group
      • Group 14 properties:
      • group contains one nonmetal, two metalloids, and two metals
      • 4 electrons in the outer level
      • reactivity varies among the elements
      • solids at room temperature
      C
      Ge
      Pb
      Sn
      Si
    • Group 15: Nitrogen Group
      Group 15 properties:
      • group contains two nonmetals, two metalloids, and two metals
      • 5 electrons in the outer level
      • reactivity varies among the elements
      • solids at room temperature (except for nitrogen, which is a gas)
    • Group 16: Oxygen Group
      Group 16 properties:
      • group contains three nonmetals, one metalloids, and one metal
      • 6 electrons in the outer level
      • reactive
      • solids at room temperature (except for oxygen, which is a gas)
    • Group 17: Halogens
      • Halogens are the elements in Group 17.
      Group 17 properties:
      • group contains nonmetals
      • 7 electrons in the outer level
      • very reactive
      • poor conductors of electric current, never in uncombined form in nature
    • Group 18: Noble Gases
      Noble gasesare the elements in Group 18.
      • Group 18 properties:
      • group contains nonmetals
      • 8 electrons in the outer level (except helium, which has 2)
      • unreactive
      • colorless, odorless gases at room temperature
    • Hydrogen
      The properties of hydrogen do not match the properties of any single group, so hydrogen is set apart.
      • a nonmetal
      • 1 electron in the outer level
      • reactive
      • colorless, odorless gas at room temperature, low density