Physical Science 5.1 : Arranging the Elements
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Physical Science 5.1 : Arranging the Elements

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Physical Science 5.1 : Arranging the Elements Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Periodic Table
    Physical Science
    Chapter 5
  • 2. Arranging the Elements
    Physical Science
    Chapter 5.1
  • 3. Objectives:
    Describe how Mendeleev arranged elements in the first periodic table.
    Explain how elements are arranged in the modern periodic table.
    Comparemetals, nonmetals, and metalloids based on their properties and on their location in the periodic table.
    Describethe difference between a period and a group.
  • 4. Discovering a Pattern
    In 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev
    Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass.
    Periodic Properties of the Elements
    When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass
    Those that had similar properties occurred in a repeating pattern.
    These repeating patterns are periodic,meaning that they happen at regular intervals.
  • 5. Predicting Properties of Missing Elements
    Mendeleev’s arrangement had gaps in its pattern.
    Mendeleev predicted that elements yet to be found would fill these gaps.
    He also predicted the properties of the missing elements.
    By 1886, all of the gaps had been filled and Mendeleev’s predictions were right.
  • 6. Changing the Arrangement
    A few elements’ properties did not fit in the pattern of Mendeleev’s table.
    In 1914,
    British scientist Henry Moseley found the number of protons—the atomic number—in an atom.
    When the elements were arranged by atomic number,
    they fit the pattern in Mendeleev’s table.
    Periodic Law: physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
  • 7.
  • 8. Classes of Elements
    Elements are classified as:
    Metals
    Nonmetals
    Metalloids
    The number of electrons in the outer energy level
    One characteristic that helps determine which category an element belongs in.
    The zigzag line on the periodic table
    Can help you recognize which elements belong in which category.
  • 9. Metals:
    Found to the left of the zigzag line.
    Atoms of most metals have few electrons in their outer energy level.
    All metals are
    Shiny
    Ductile
    Malleable
    Good conductors of electric current and thermal energy.
  • 10. Nonmetals
    Found to the right of the zigzag line.
    Atoms of most nonmetals have an almost complete set of electrons in their outer energy level.
    Nonmetals are:
    Not shiny
    Not ductile, or malleable
    Poor conductors of electric current and thermal energy.
  • 11. Metalloids
    The elements that border the zigzag line.
    Atoms of metalloids have about half of a complete set of electrons in their outer energy level.
    have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals.
    also called semiconductors
  • 12. Decoding the Periodic Table
    Each Element is Identified by a Chemical Symbol
    Each square on the periodic table includes
    Element’s name
    Chemical symbol
    Atomic number
    Atomic mass.
    For most elements
    The chemical symbol has one or two letters.
    The newest elements have temporary three-letter symbols.
    Atomic number
    6
    C12.011 Carbon
    Chemical Symbol
    Atomic Mass
    Element Name
  • 13. Horizontal rows Are Called Periods
    The chemical and physical properties of elements in a row follow a repeating pattern as you move across the period.
    Vertical columns Are Called Groups
    Elements in the same group often have similar chemical and physical properties.
    Period
    Group