Physical Science 3.3 : Mixtures
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Physical Science 3.3 : Mixtures

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Physical Science 3.3 : Mixtures Physical Science 3.3 : Mixtures Presentation Transcript

  • Mixtures
    Physical Science
    Chapter 3.3
  • Objectives:
    Describethree properties of mixtures.
    Describefour methods of separating the parts of a mixture.
    Analyzea solution in terms of its solute and solvent.
    Explainhow concentration affects a solution.
    Describethe particles in a suspension.
    Explainhow a colloid differs from a solution and a suspension.
    Bellringer
    When you add sugar to coffee, tea, iced tea, or lemonade, the sugar disappears. What do you think happens to the sugar?
  • Properties of Mixtures
    Mixture
    combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
    No Chemical Changes in a Mixture
    So, each substance has the same chemical makeup it had before the mixture was formed.
    Separating Mixtures Through Physical Methods
    Mixtures can be separated by using physical changes.
    Physical changes do not change the identities of the substances.
  • Salt dissolves in water
    Magnet: separates mixture of metals from nonmetals.
    Distillation:separates mixture based on boiling points
    More than one mixture:
    Takes more than one step.
    Filtration: remove large solid from liquid.
    Evaporation: remove dissolve solid from liquid
    Pour mixture through filter
    Centrifuge: separates mixture by densities of components
    Evaporate water
  • The Ratio of Components in a Mixture
    The components of a mixture do not need to be mixed in a definite ratio.
    Example, granite is a mixture of three minerals.
    Feldspar - pink
    Mica - black
    Quartz - colorless
  • Solutions
    mixture that appears to be a single substance.
    Dissolving
    Process in which particles of substances separate and spread evenly throughout a mixture
    solute
    the substance that is dissolved.
    solvent
    the substance in which the solute is dissolved
  • Examples
    Liquid solutions
    soft drinks
    Gasoline
    tap water
    Gas solutions
    Air
    Solid Solutions
    Steel
    Brass
    Gold in jewelry
    Alloys
    solid solutions of metals or nonmetals dissolved in metals.
  • Particles in Solutions
    Particles in solutions are so small that they never settle out.
    Cannot be removed by filtering.
    Particles are so small that they don’t even scatter light.
  • Concentrations of Solutions
    A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent.
    Concentrated or Dilute?
    Concentrate: a lot of solute in solution
    Dilute: small amount of solute in solution
  • Solubility
    the ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent at a certain temperature
    The solubility of most solids in water increases with temperature.
  • Dissolving Gases in Liquids
    Gases become less soluble in liquids as the temperature is raised.
    Dissolving Solids Faster in Liquids
    3 Ways to make a solid dissolve faster:
    Mixing the solution
    Heating the solution
    Crushing the solute into smaller particles.
  • Suspensions
    a mixture in which particles of a material are dispersed throughout a liquid or a gas but are large enough that they settle out.
    The particles are large enough to scatter or block light.
    Can be separated by passing it through a filter.
  • Colloids
    A mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out.
    Particles in a colloid are large enough to scatter light.
    Cannot be separated by passing it through a filter.