Introduction to Science 3.2 : Scientific Methods

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Introduction to Science 3.2 : Scientific Methods

  1. 1. Scientific methods<br />Introduction to Science<br />Chapter 3.2<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Explainwhat scientific methods are.<br />Explain how scientific methods are used to answer questions.<br />Describehow a hypothesis is formed and tested.<br />Identifymethods that are used to analyze data.<br />Explainhow a conclusion can support or disprove a hypothesis.<br />List methods of communicating data.<br />Bellringer<br />How can you prove that the world is not flat?<br />
  3. 3. What are Scientific Methods?<br />Scientific methods <br />The ways in which scientists answer questions and solve problems.<br />As scientists look for answers, they often use the same steps. But there is more than one way to use the steps. <br />Scientists may repeat some steps or do them in a different order.<br />
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  5. 5. Ask a Question<br />Helps focus the purpose of an investigation. <br />Scientists often ask a question after making observations.<br />Observation<br />any use of the senses to gather information.<br />Should be accurately recorded so that scientists can use the information in future investigations.<br />
  6. 6. A Real-World Question<br />Engineers are scientists who put scientific knowledge to practical human use.<br />Engineers create technology.<br />Technology<br />Application of science for practical purposes.<br />For example, engineers Czarnowski and Triantafyllou studied the efficiency of boat propulsion systems.<br />
  7. 7. The Importance of Boat Efficiency<br />Efficiency compares the energy used to move the boat forward with the energy supplied by the engine. <br />Making boats more efficient would save fuel and money.<br />Based on their observations<br />Czarnowski and Triantafyllou asked the question: <br />How can boat propulsion systems be made more efficient?<br />
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  9. 9. Form a Hypothesis<br />Once you have asked a question and made observations, you are ready to form a hypothesis.<br />Hypothesis<br />Explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations that can be tested.<br />
  10. 10. Nature Provides a Possible Answer<br />Czarnowski studied penguins swimming and formed the hypothesis:<br />A propulsion system that mimics the way a penguin swims will be more efficient than a propulsion system that uses propellers.<br />Make Predictions<br />Before scientists test a hypothesis<br />They often make predictions that state what they think will happen during the actual test of the hypothesis.<br />Make a prediction for these images.<br />
  11. 11. Test the Hypothesis<br />After you form a hypothesis, you must test it.<br />Testing helps you find out if your hypothesis is correct or not.<br />Keep It Under Control<br />One way to test a hypothesis is to do a controlled experiment.<br />Tests one variable at a time.<br />By changing only that variable, scientists can see the results of just that one change.<br />
  12. 12. Testing Proteus<br />Czarnowski and Triantafyllou built a model penguin boat called Proteus to test their hypothesis.<br />The engineers took Proteus into open water to collect data.<br />Data<br />Pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation<br />Plant Growth with Sunlight<br />
  13. 13. Analyze the results:<br />Once you have your data, you must analyze them to find out whether the results support your hypothesis. <br />The graphs below show the analysis of the tests done on Proteus.<br />
  14. 14. Draw Conclusions<br />At the end of an investigation<br />You must draw a conclusion. <br />It can help you decide what you do next.<br />The Proteus Conclusion<br />Czarnowski and Triantafyllou found that the penguin propulsion system was more efficient than a propeller system.<br />So, they concluded that their hypothesis was supported.<br />
  15. 15. Communicate Results<br />One of the most important steps in an investigation is to communicate your results accurately and honestly.<br />Communicating About Proteus<br />Czarnowski and Triantafyllou published their results in academic papers.<br />They also displayed their project and its results on the Internet.<br />

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