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Earth Science 3.2 : Relative Dating : Which Came First?
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Earth Science 3.2 : Relative Dating : Which Came First?


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  • 1. Earth Science Chapter 3.2
    Relative Dating : Which Came First?
  • 2. Objectives:
    Explain how relative dating is used in geology.
    Explain the principle of superposition.
    Describe how the geologic column is used in relative dating.
    Identify two events and two features that disrupt rock layers.
    Explain how physical features are used to determine relative ages.
  • 3. The Principle of Superposition
    Geologists try to determine the order in which events have happened during Earth’s history.
    They rely on rocks and fossils to help them in their investigation.
    Relative dating
    The process of determining whether an event or object is older or younger than other events or objects.
  • 4. Layers of sedimentary rock, such as the ones shown below, are stacked like pancakes.
    As you move from the top to the bottom in layers of sedimentary rock, the lower layers are older.
    Principle that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks, if the layers have not been disturbed.
  • 5. Disturbing Forces
    Not all rock sequences are arranged with the oldest layers on the bottom and the youngest layers on top.
    Some rock sequences have been disturbed by forces within the Earth.
    These forces can:
    Push other rocks into a sequence
    Tilt or fold rock layers
    Break sequences into moveable parts.
  • 6. The Geologic Column
    an ideal sequence of rock layers that contains all the known fossils and rock formations on Earth, arranged from oldest to youngest.
    Geologists use the geologic column to:
    Interpret rock sequences
    Identify the layers in puzzling rock sequences.
  • 7.
  • 8. Disturbed Rock Layers
    often find features that cut across existing layers of rock.
    assign relative ages to the features and the layers.
    The features must be younger than the rock layers because the rock layers had to be present before the features could cut across them.
  • 9. Events That Disturb Rock Layers
    Geologists assume that the way sediment is deposited to form rock layers — in horizontal layers — has not changed over time.
    If rock layers are not horizontal
    something must have disturbed them after they formed.
    Four ways that rock layers may become disturbed.
    A fault
    break in the Earth’s crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another.
    An intrusion
    molten rock from the Earth’s interior that squeezes into existing rock and cools.
  • 10. Folding
    occurs when rock layers bend and buckle from Earth’s internal forces.
    occurs when internal forces in the Earth slant rock layers.
  • 11. Gaps in the Record -- Unconformities
    Missing Evidence
    Sometimes, layers of rock are missing, creating a gap in the geologic record.
    break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time.
  • 12. Types of Unconformities
    Most unconformities form by both erosion and nondeposition, but other factors may be involved.
    Geologists place them into three major categories:
    Angular unconformities
    Disconformities exist where part of a sequence of parallel rock layers is missing.
  • 13. Nonconformities
    exist where sedimentary rock layers lie on top of an eroded surface of nonlayered igneous or metamorphic rock.
    Angular Unconformities
    exist between horizontal rock layers and rock layers that are tilted or folded.
  • 14. Rock-Layer Puzzles
    Rock-layer sequences often have been affected by more than one geological event or feature.
    For example, intrusions may squeeze into rock layers that contain an unconformity
    Determining the order events
    is like solving a jigsaw puzzle.
    piece together the history of the Earth.