Earth Science 2.1 : The Rock Cycle


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Earth Science 2.1 : The Rock Cycle

  1. 1. Rocks: mineral mixtures<br />Earth Science<br />Chapter 2.1<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Describetwo ways rocks have been used by humans.<br />Describefour processes that shape Earth’s features.<br />Describe how each type of rock changes into another type as it moves through the rock cycle.<br />List two characteristics of rock that are used to help classify it.<br />
  3. 3. The Rock Cycle<br />Rock<br />naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter<br />New rock forms from old rock material constantly<br />Rock cycle<br />The series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. The Value of Rock<br />Important natural resource for as long as humans have existed<br />Ancient and modern civilizations<br />used granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, slate and other rocks as construction materials<br />Important ingredient in concrete and plaster, both of which are commonly used in construction<br />Capitol Building<br />Pyramids and Sphinx, Giza, Egypt<br />
  6. 6. TajMahal, India<br />Granite Countertops<br />Brooklyn Bridge<br />Stonehenge<br />
  7. 7. Processes that Shape the Earth<br />Certain geological processes make and destroy rock<br />These processes<br />Shape the features of our planet<br />Influence the type of rock that is found in certain areas<br />Grand Canyon, Arizona<br />Hawaiian Islands<br />
  8. 8. Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition<br />Weathering<br />Process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock<br />Important because it breaks down rock into fragments of which sedimentary rock is made<br />
  9. 9. Erosion<br />Process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another<br />Ice<br />Wind<br />Water<br />
  10. 10. Deposition<br />Process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest<br />
  11. 11. Heat and Pressure<br />Sedimentary rock can also form when buried sediment is squeezed by the weight of overlaying layers of sediment<br />If the temperature and pressure are high enough, the rock can change into metamorphic rock<br />If the rock gets hot enough to melt, this creates the magma that eventually cools to form igneous rock<br />
  12. 12. How the Cycle Continues<br />Buried rock is exposed at the Earth’s surface by a combination of uplift and erosion<br />Uplift<br />Movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the surface<br />When uplifted rock reaches the Earth’s surface, weathering, erosion, and deposition begin<br />
  13. 13. Rock Cycle illustrated<br />and erosion<br />
  14. 14. Rock Classification<br />Three main classes<br />Igneous rock<br />Sedimentary rock<br />Metamorphic rock<br />Each class of rock can be divided further, based on differences in the ways rocks form<br />granite<br />obsidian<br />shale<br />sandstone<br />slate<br />marble<br />
  15. 15. Igneous rock can be divided again<br />based on whether the magma from which it forms cools on the Earth’s surfaceor below ground<br />Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also divided into smaller groups<br />Scientists study rocks in detail using two important criteria:<br />Composition<br />Texture<br />
  16. 16. Composition<br />Chemical makeup of a rock<br />Can describe either the minerals or other materials in the rock<br />Texture<br />Quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock’s grains<br />95%<br />calcite<br />limestone<br />5%<br />aragonite<br />siltstone<br />sandstone<br />Conglomerate<br />Fine-grained<br />medium-grained<br />Coarse-grained<br />