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Earth Science 2.1 : The Rock Cycle
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Earth Science 2.1 : The Rock Cycle

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  • 1. Rocks: mineral mixtures
    Earth Science
    Chapter 2.1
  • 2. Objectives:
    Describetwo ways rocks have been used by humans.
    Describefour processes that shape Earth’s features.
    Describe how each type of rock changes into another type as it moves through the rock cycle.
    List two characteristics of rock that are used to help classify it.
  • 3. The Rock Cycle
    Rock
    naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
    New rock forms from old rock material constantly
    Rock cycle
    The series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes
  • 4.
  • 5. The Value of Rock
    Important natural resource for as long as humans have existed
    Ancient and modern civilizations
    used granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, slate and other rocks as construction materials
    Important ingredient in concrete and plaster, both of which are commonly used in construction
    Capitol Building
    Pyramids and Sphinx, Giza, Egypt
  • 6. TajMahal, India
    Granite Countertops
    Brooklyn Bridge
    Stonehenge
  • 7. Processes that Shape the Earth
    Certain geological processes make and destroy rock
    These processes
    Shape the features of our planet
    Influence the type of rock that is found in certain areas
    Grand Canyon, Arizona
    Hawaiian Islands
  • 8. Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
    Weathering
    Process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock
    Important because it breaks down rock into fragments of which sedimentary rock is made
  • 9. Erosion
    Process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
    Ice
    Wind
    Water
  • 10. Deposition
    Process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest
  • 11. Heat and Pressure
    Sedimentary rock can also form when buried sediment is squeezed by the weight of overlaying layers of sediment
    If the temperature and pressure are high enough, the rock can change into metamorphic rock
    If the rock gets hot enough to melt, this creates the magma that eventually cools to form igneous rock
  • 12. How the Cycle Continues
    Buried rock is exposed at the Earth’s surface by a combination of uplift and erosion
    Uplift
    Movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the surface
    When uplifted rock reaches the Earth’s surface, weathering, erosion, and deposition begin
  • 13. Rock Cycle illustrated
    and erosion
  • 14. Rock Classification
    Three main classes
    Igneous rock
    Sedimentary rock
    Metamorphic rock
    Each class of rock can be divided further, based on differences in the ways rocks form
    granite
    obsidian
    shale
    sandstone
    slate
    marble
  • 15. Igneous rock can be divided again
    based on whether the magma from which it forms cools on the Earth’s surfaceor below ground
    Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also divided into smaller groups
    Scientists study rocks in detail using two important criteria:
    Composition
    Texture
  • 16. Composition
    Chemical makeup of a rock
    Can describe either the minerals or other materials in the rock
    Texture
    Quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock’s grains
    95%
    calcite
    limestone
    5%
    aragonite
    siltstone
    sandstone
    Conglomerate
    Fine-grained
    medium-grained
    Coarse-grained