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Earth Science 4.2 : Restless Continents
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Earth Science 4.2 : Restless Continents



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  • 1. Earth Science 4.2
    Restless Continents
  • 2. Objectives:
    DescribeWegener’s hypothesis of continental drift.
    Explain how sea-floor spreading provides a way for continents to move.
    Describe how new oceanic lithosphere forms at mid-ocean ridges.
    Explain how magnetic reversals provide evidence for sea-floor spreading.
  • 3. Wegener’s Continental Drift Hypothesis
    Continental drift
    Hypothesis that states that continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations.
    Scientist Alfred Wegener developed the hypothesis in the early 1900s.
  • 4. The Breakup of Pangaea
    Wegener theorized that all of the present continents were once joined in a single, huge continent he called Pangaea.
    Pangaea is Greek for “all earth.”
    Existed about 245 million years ago.
  • 5. Sea-Floor Spreading
    Evidence to support the continental drift hypothesis comes from sea-floor spreading.
    Sea-floor spreading
    Process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies.
    Mid-Ocean Ridges and Sea-Floor Spreading
    Mid-ocean ridges are underwater mountain chains that run through Earth’s ocean basins.
    These mid-ocean ridges are the places where sea-floor spreading takes place.
  • 6.
  • 7. Evidence for Sea-Floor Spreading: Magnetic Reversals
    Some of the most important evidence of sea-floor spreading comes from magnetic reversals recorded in the ocean floor.
    Throughout Earth’s history, the north and south magnetic poles have changed places many times.
    Molten rock at the mid-ocean ridge contains tiny grains of magnetic minerals that act like compasses
    These minerals align with the magnetic field of the Earth. When the molten rock cools, the record of these tiny compasses remains in the rock.
    When the Earth’s magnetic field reverses,
    The magnetic mineral grains align in the opposite direction. The new rock records the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field.
    As the sea floor spreads away from a mid-ocean ridge, it carries with it a record of these magnetic reversals.