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Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock
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Earth Science 2.4 : Metamorphic Rock

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  • 1. Metamorphic rock
    Earth Science
    Chapter 2.4
  • 2. Objectives:
    Describe two ways a rock can undergo metamorphism.
    Explainhow the mineral composition of rocks changes as the rocks undergo metamorphism.
    Describe the difference between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rock.
    Explain how metamorphic rock structures are related to deformation.
  • 3. Origins of Metamorphic Rock
    Metamorphic rocks
    Rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition of the rock have changed
    All three types of rock can be changed by heat, pressure, or a combination of both
    A rock’s texture or mineral composition can change when its surroundings change
    If the temperature or pressure of the new environment is different from the one in which the rock formed
    the rock will undergo metamorphism
  • 4. Contact metamorphism
    When magma moves through the crust, the magma heats the surrounding rock and changes it.
    Some minerals in the surrounding rock are changed into other minerals by this increase in temperature.
    The greatest change occurs where magma comes into direct contact with the surrounding rock.
  • 5. Regional metamorphism
    occurs when pressure builds up in rock that is buried deep below other rock formations
    or when large pieces of the Earth’s curst collide with each other.
    The increased pressure and temperature causes rock to become deformed and chemically changed.
  • 6. Composition of Metamorphic Rock
    As rocks undergo metamorphism
    Original minerals in a rock change into new minerals that are more stable within the new pressure and temperature conditions.
    Index minerals (form only in metamorphic rock)
    Are used to estimate
    Temperature
    Depth
    Pressure ---- at which a rock undergoes meta-morphism.
    calcite
    +
    +
    +
    Heat and Pressure
    =
    quartz
    hematite
    Garnet
  • 7. Texture of Metamorphic Rock
    Two types:
    Foliated Metamorphic Rock
    Mineral grains are arranged in planes or band
    Usually contains aligned grains of flat minerals, such as biotite, mica or chlorite
    Metamorphic rocks can become other metamorphic rocks if the environment changes again.
    Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock
    Mineral grains are not arranged in planes or band
    commonly made of one or only a few minerals.
    Recrystallization
    Process in which crystals of these minerals may change in size or the mineral may change in composition
  • 8. This shows what happens to shale, a sedimentary rock, when it is exposed to more and more heat and pressure.
    Slate
    Shale
    Phylite
    Schist
    Gneiss
  • 9. Two examples of nonfoliated metamorphic rock
    undergoes
    metamorphism
    Marble
    limestone
    undergoes
    metamorphism
    Sandstone
    Quartzite
  • 10. Metamorphic Rock Structures
    Metamorphic rock has features that indicates its history. These features are caused by deformation:
    Change in the shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it.
    These forces may cause a rock to be squeezed or stretched.
    Folds, or bends, in metamorphic rock are structures that indicate a rock has been deformed.

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