Chapter 6.3 : Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds
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Chapter 6.3 : Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds

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Chapter 6.3 : Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Ionic bonds and ionic compounds
    Chapter 6.3
  • 2. Objectives
    Compare and contrast a chemical formula for a molecular compound with one for an ionic compound
    Discuss the arrangements of ions in crystals
    Define lattice energy and explain its significance
    List and compare the distinctive properties of ionic and molecular compounds
    Write the Lewis structure for a polyatomic ion given the identity of the atoms combined and other appropriate information
  • 3. Ionic Compounds
    Defined as : compound composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
    Sodium Chloride
    • Most ionic compounds exist as
    • 4. 3-D network of positive and negative ions mutually attracted to one another.
    • 5. Above – Na+1 and Cl-1 are in a 1 to 1 ratio
    • 6. Chemical formula is simply written as NaCl.
  • Formula Unit
    Defined as : the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established.
    Calcium Fluoride
    Potassium chloride
    Cl
    1 to 1 ratio
    1 to 2 ratio
    K
    Ratio depends on charges of ions!
    KCl
    CaF2
  • 7. Formation of Ionic compounds
    Using electron dot notation to show ionic bonding
    Na Cl
    Sodium atom Chlorine atom
    Na + Cl Na+1 + Cl -1
    Sodium atom Chlorine atom Sodium cation Chlorine anion
    Ca + F + F Ca+2 + F -1 + F -1
    Sodium atom Fluorine atom Fluorine atom Calcium cation Fluorine anion Fluorine anion
  • 8. Characteristics of Ionic Bonding
    Ionic crystal has minimum potential energy
    Crystal Latticeis formed
    Orderly arrangement of ions
    • Lattice energy
    • 9. Energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions.
    • 10. Energy is released when crystals are formed
  • Compare ionic and molecular compounds
    Ionic compound
    Very strong attractive forces
    High melting and boiling points
    Hard and brittle
    Not electrical conductors (in solid state)
    Are electrical conductors (in molten state and when dissolved)
    Molecular compound
    Attractive force between molecules aren’t as strong
    Low melting and boiling points, many are gases at room temperature
    Notelectrical conductors
  • 11. Polyatomic Ions
    Charged group of covalently bonded atoms
    +1
    -1
    H
    H N H
    H
    -2
    O
    N O
    O
    O
    O SO
    O
    Ammonium Ion
    Nitrate Ion
    Sulfate Ion
    NH4+1
    NO3-1
    SO4-2
    -3
    O
    O P O
    O
    4 O
    6 e- each
    24 e-
    32 e-
    Phosphate Ion
    1P
    5 e- each
    5 e-
    so
    29 e-
    PO4-3
    29 e-
    3 e-
    32 e-