Chapter 6.1<br />CHEMICAL BONDING<br />
Objectives:<br />Define chemical bond<br />Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds<br />Describe ionic and covalent bon...
Chemical Bonding<br />In nature, most atoms are joined to others by chemical bonds<br />
Types of Chemical Bonds<br />Ionic bonding – bonding resulting from electrical attraction between large numbers of cations...
 Nature – favors a minimized potential energy
 Most atoms are less stable by themselves than when they are combined
 By bonding, atoms decrease in potential energy, become more stable</li></li></ul><li>Ionic Bond Examples<br />
Covalent Bond Examples<br />
Ionic or Covalent?<br /><ul><li> Rarely purely ionic or purely covalent
 Usually somewhere in between, depending on how strongly each atom attracts electrons. (Electronegativity)
 Determine by calculating difference in electronegativity</li></ul>For example: Cs – 0.7   F – 4.0<br />So, 4.0 – 0.7 = 3....
Difference in Electronegativity<br />1. If the electronegativity difference (usually called DEN) is less than 0.3, then th...
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Chapter 6.1 : Introduction to Chemical Bonding

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Chapter 6.1 : Introduction to Chemical Bonding

  1. 1. Chapter 6.1<br />CHEMICAL BONDING<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Define chemical bond<br />Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds<br />Describe ionic and covalent bonding<br />Explain why most chemical bonding is neither purely ionic nor purely covalent<br />Classify bonding type according to electronegativity differences<br />
  3. 3. Chemical Bonding<br />In nature, most atoms are joined to others by chemical bonds<br />
  4. 4. Types of Chemical Bonds<br />Ionic bonding – bonding resulting from electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions.<br />Transfer ofelectrons<br /><ul><li>Covalent bonding – bond resulting from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms</li></li></ul><li>Why are most atoms chemically bonded to each other?<br /><ul><li> As independent particles – high potential energy
  5. 5. Nature – favors a minimized potential energy
  6. 6. Most atoms are less stable by themselves than when they are combined
  7. 7. By bonding, atoms decrease in potential energy, become more stable</li></li></ul><li>Ionic Bond Examples<br />
  8. 8. Covalent Bond Examples<br />
  9. 9. Ionic or Covalent?<br /><ul><li> Rarely purely ionic or purely covalent
  10. 10. Usually somewhere in between, depending on how strongly each atom attracts electrons. (Electronegativity)
  11. 11. Determine by calculating difference in electronegativity</li></ul>For example: Cs – 0.7 F – 4.0<br />So, 4.0 – 0.7 = 3.3<br />Use scale to determine<br />
  12. 12. Difference in Electronegativity<br />1. If the electronegativity difference (usually called DEN) is less than 0.3, then the bond is nonpolar covalent.2. If the DEN is between 0.3 and 1.6, the bond is considered polar covalent3. If the DEN is greater than 1.7, then the bond is ionic. <br />
  13. 13. Chart of polarities<br />
  14. 14. Polarity<br /><ul><li> Nonpolar-covalent bond : bonding electrons are shared equally by the atoms
  15. 15. balanced distribution of electric charge
  16. 16. Polar-covalent bond : bonding electrons are shared unequally by the atoms
  17. 17. unbalanced distribution of electric charge</li></li></ul><li>Examples of Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds<br />H - H<br />Nonpolar<br />O - O<br />C - H<br />Polar<br />O - H<br />
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