Chapter 5.3 : Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
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Chapter 5.3 : Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table

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Chapter 5.3 : Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 5.3
    Electron Configurations and Periodic properties
  • 2. Objectives:
    Define atomic radii and ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.
    Compare periodic trends for these properties and state reasons for variations.
    Define valence electrons, and state how many are present in atoms of each main-group element.
    Compare the these same properties of d-block elements with those of the main-group elements
  • 3. Atomic Radii
    Defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
    Period trends
    Decrease from left to right
    Due to increasing positive charge
    • Group trends
    • 4. Increase down a group
    • 5. Due to occupying higher energy levels
  • Atomic Radii
  • 6. Ionization Energy
    Defined as energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element (IE)
    A + energy A+ + e-
    • Ion – atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
  • Ionization Energy
    Period trends
    Generally increase across a period
    Due to increasing nuclear charge
    • Group trends
    • 7. Generally decrease down a group
    • 8. Due to electron shielding of outer electrons
  • Electron Affinity
    Defined as the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
    A +e- A- + energy
    • Quantity released represented by a negative number
    • 9. Forced
    • 10. Unstable
    A +e- + energyA-
    • Quantity absorbed represented by a positive number
  • Ionic radii
    Cation – positive ion
    Formed by loss of one or more electrons
    Smaller due to removal of electron & stronger pull by nucleus on remaining electrons
    • Anion– negative ion
    • 11. Formed by gain of one or more electrons
    • 12. Larger due to addition of electron & remaining electrons are not pulled as strongly by nucleus
    Ionic Radii
  • 13. Valence Electrons
    Defined as the electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
    Valence electron
    Sodium atom
    Chlorine atom
  • 14. Valence Electrons
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 15. Electronegativity
    Defined as the measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
    Want to gain electrons!!
    Noble gases have very low electronegativity
    Alkali metals are low as well
    Halogens have the highest
    Electronegativity
    • Period trends
    • 16. Tend to increase across a period
    • 17. Due to wanting to fill outer shell
    • 18. Group trends
    • 19. Tend to decrease down a group
  • Electronegativity