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Chapter 21.3 : Organic Reactions and Polymers
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Chapter 21.3 : Organic Reactions and Polymers

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  • 1. Chapter 21.3 & 4
    Organic Reactions and Polymers
  • 2. Describe and distinguish between the organic reactions: substitution, addition, condensation, and elimination
    Relate some functional groups to some characteristic reactions
    Identify the two main types of polymers and the basic reaction mechanisms by which they are made
    Objectives:
  • 3. Substitutions Reaction
    Reaction in which one or more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms in a molecule
    example: reaction between a methane (an alkane) and chlorine (a halogen) to form an alkyl halide
    Chloroform/CFC’s created in this way.
    Trichloromethane / tetrachloromethane
  • 4. Addition Reactions
    Reaction in which two parts of a molecule are added to an unsaturated molecule, increasing the saturation of the molecule
    example: hydrogenation, the addition of hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated molecule
    Vegetable oils contain long chains of carbon atoms with many double bonds
    Unsaturated fats
    Saturated fats
  • 5. Hydrogenation of Fatty Acid
  • 6. Condensation Reaction
    Reaction in which two molecules or parts of the same molecule combine
    A small molecule, such as water, is usually removed during the reaction
    example: a reaction between two amino acids (which contain both amine and carboxyl groups)
    When repeated many times, this reaction forms a protein molecule: a chain of amino acids
  • 7. Elimination Reaction
    Reaction in which a simple molecule, such as water or ammonia, is formed from adjacent carbon atoms of a larger molecule
    example: the heating of ethanol in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid
  • 8. Polymers
    large molecules made of many small units joined to each other through organic reactions
    Monomers
    The small units
    A polymer can be made from identical or different monomers
    Copolymer
    A polymer made from two or more different monomers
    Polymers are all around us
    Natural polymers: starch, cellulose, proteins
    Synthetic polymers: plastics, synthetic polymers (e.g. polypropylene)
  • 9. Addition polymers
    polymer formed by addition reactions between monomers that contain a double bond
    example: molecules of ethene can polymerize with each other to form polyethene, commonly known as polyethylene
    The letter n shows that the addition reaction can be repeated multiple times to form a polymer n monomers long
    This reaction can be repeated hundreds or thousands of times
  • 10. Addition Polymers
    Vulcanization :
    cross-linking process between adjacent polyisoprene molecules that occurs when the molecules are heated with sulfur atoms.
  • 11. Forms of polyethylene
    Branches keep LPDE from packing tightly
    Cross-links make CPE very strong
    Linear HDPE can pack together closely
  • 12. Condensation Polymers
    Polymer formed by condensation reactions
    Monomers of condensation polymers must contain two functional groups: this allows each monomer to link with two other monomers by condensation reactions
    Condensation polymers are usually copolymers with two monomers in an alternating order
  • 13. Polyester
    Another condensation polymer
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
    Ethylene glycol and terephtalic acid
    Alcohol and carboxylic acid
    As usual, water is the other product

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