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Chapter 21.1 : Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds
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Chapter 21.1 : Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

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  • 1. Chapter 21.1 and 2
    Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds
  • 2. Define “functional group” and explain why functional groups are important.
    Identify and alcohols, alkyl halides, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amines based on the functional group present in each
    Explain the relationships between the properties and structures of compounds with various functional groups
    Objectives:
  • 3. Functional Groups
    An atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound
    Compounds that contain the same functional group can be classed together
    Makes properties that are very different from those of the corresponding hydrocarbon.
  • 4. Comparing Classes of Organic Compounds
  • 5. Common Functional Groups
  • 6. More Functional Groups
  • 7. Alcohols
    Organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups
    General formula for a class of organic compounds
    Consists of the functional group and the letter R
    which stands for the rest of the molecule
    General formula for alcohols
    R–OH
    Hydroxyl group, –OH,
    Makes alcohols able to hydrogen-bond
    makes them soluble in water
  • 8. Uses of Alcohols
    Lotions, creams, and cosmetics
    usually contain an alcohol called glycerol to keep them moist
    Alternative fuels
    Ex: gasohol, a one-to-nine ratio of ethanol and gasoline
    Simple alcohols - Ethanol
    Poisonous to some extent
  • 9. Alkyl Halides
    Organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine—
    are substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon
    General formula of an alkyl halideis
    R–X (where X represents any halogen).
    EX:
    Chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs (implicated in ozone-layer depletion)
    Teflon®, a polymer made from tetrafluoroethene, C2F4
  • 10. Ethers
    organic compounds in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen
    General formula of an ether:
    R–O–R’
    R’ represents a hydrocarbon group
    R same or different hydrocarbon group
    Not very reactive compounds
    Relatively nonpolar
    Uses:
    Solvents
    Some have pleasant odors, used in perfumes
  • 11. Alcohol Nomenclature
    Name Parent hydrocarbon:
    Longest chain containing hydroxyl group
    Drop –e, add –ol
    More than one hydroxyl group
    2 -diol
    3 -triol
    Number so hydroxyl group has lowest number possible
    Insert number immediately before name of parent hydrocarbon
    OH
    OH
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    1-butanol
    2,2 - butandiol
    OH
  • 12. Alkyl Halide Nomenclature
    Name Parent hydrocarbon
    Find longest chain
    Prefixes for halogens --- fluoro, bromo, chloro , iodo
    If more than one, put in alphabetical order
    If more than one of the same, use prefixes di, tri, tetra
    Number carbon atoms
    Lowest number in it’s name
    If halogen in same position – alphabetical
    Br
    Br
    Cl
    Cl
    Cl
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    1,2 - dibromobutane
    Cl
    1,1,1,3 - tetrachlorobutane
  • 13. Ether Nomenclature
    Name the parent compound
    The word ether will come at the end of the name
    Add names of alkyl groups
    Arrange names in alphabetical order
    If both are same, use prefix –di
    Leave spaces in the name
    Space between alkyl group names and ether
    C
    O
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    O
    C
    C
    C
    diethyl ether
    ethyl propyl ether
  • 14. Contain the carbonyl group.
    Aldehydes
    organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom at the end of a carbon-carbon chain
    Ketones
    organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain
    Aldehydes and Ketones
  • 15. The general formula for an aldehyde is:
    The general formula for a ketone is:
    Aldehydes and ketones are often responsible for certain odors and flavors
  • 16. Locate parent compound
    Longest chain containing carbonyl group
    Always number carbonyl group as 1
    Change –e to –al
    All other rules apply (ex: number from side closest to the carbonyl group
    Aldehyde Nomenclature
    C
    O
    C
    O
    C
    O
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    propanal
    3,3 - dimethylpropanal
    2 – ethyl pentanal
  • 17. Locate Parent compound
    Must contain carbonyl group and it must contain the lowest number
    Change –e to –one
    All other rules apply
    Ketone Nomenclature
    O
    O
    C
    O
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    propanone
    2 - pentanone
    C
    2,2 - dimethyl – 3 - pentanone
  • 18. Amines
    Amines
    Organic compounds that can be considered to be derivatives of ammonia, NH3
    General formula of an amine :
    Amines are common in nature.
    Often form during the breakdown of proteins in animal cells
    The unshared electron pair on the nitrogen makes amines act as weak bases in aqueous solutions:
  • 19. Amine Nomenclature
    Name the parent compound
    End will be –amine
    Add alkyl groups
    Alphabetical order
    Use prefixes, di-, tri-
    H
    H
    C
    C
    H
    N
    C
    C
    N
    C
    C
    C
    N
    methylamine
    ethylmethylamine
    trimethylamine
    PRIMARY AMINE
    SECONDARY AMINE
    TERTIARY AMINE
  • 20. Carboxylic Acids
    organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group
    General formula:
    Like inorganic acids
    Carboxylic acids react to lose a hydrogen ion and become a negatively charged ion in water
  • 21. Examples
    acetic acid (the weak acid in vinegar)
    citric acid
    benzoic, propanoic, and sorbic acids (used as preservatives)
    Much weaker than many
    inorganic acids
  • 22. Carboxylic Acids Found in Plants and Animals
  • 23. Carboxylic Acid Nomenclature
    Name Parent Compound
    Longest chain contains carboxyl group
    Drop –e, add –oic acid
    More than one, use full name of parent compound (don’t drop -e )
    -dioic acid = 2, -trioc acid = 3
    O
    O
    O
    O
    C
    C
    C
    OH
    C
    C
    OH
    C
    C
    C
    OH
    C
    HO
    propanoic acid
    C
    ethanedioic acid
    3 - methylbutanoic acid
  • 24. Esters
    organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group
    General formula:
    considered derivatives of carboxylic acids because of their structural similarity to carboxylic acids
    Like aldehydes and ketones, esters are responsible for many common odors and flavors
  • 25. Common Odors and Flavors of Esters
  • 26. Esters Nomenclature
    Name parent compound
    Name carboxylic acid
    Change –oic acid to –oate
    Add the name of the alkyl group
    This will be the front of the name
    O
    O
    C
    O
    C
    C
    C
    C
    C
    O
    C
    C
    C
    C
    Methyl butanoate
    ethyl propanoate

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