Chapter 21.1 and 2<br />Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds<br />
Define “functional group” and explain why functional groups are important.<br />Identify  and alcohols, alkyl halides, eth...
Functional Groups<br />An atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound<br...
Comparing Classes of Organic Compounds<br />
Common Functional Groups<br />
More Functional Groups<br />
Alcohols<br />Organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups<br />General formula for a class of organic compo...
Uses of Alcohols<br />Lotions, creams, and cosmetics<br />usually contain an alcohol called glycerol to keep them moist<br...
Alkyl Halides<br />Organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine—<br />are s...
Ethers<br />organic compounds in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen<br />General formula o...
Alcohol Nomenclature<br />Name Parent hydrocarbon:<br />Longest chain containing hydroxyl group<br />Drop –e, add –ol<br /...
Alkyl Halide Nomenclature<br />Name Parent hydrocarbon<br />Find longest chain<br />Prefixes for halogens --- fluoro, brom...
Ether Nomenclature<br />Name the parent compound<br />The word ether  will come at the end of the name<br />Add names of a...
Contain the carbonyl group.<br />Aldehydes<br />organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom...
The general formula for an aldehyde is:<br />The general formula for a ketone is:<br />Aldehydes and ketones are often res...
Locate parent compound<br />Longest chain containing carbonyl group<br />Always number carbonyl group as 1<br />Change –e ...
Locate Parent compound<br />Must contain carbonyl group and it must contain the lowest number<br />Change –e to –one<br />...
Amines<br />Amines<br />Organic compounds that can be considered to be derivatives of ammonia, NH3<br />General formula of...
Amine Nomenclature<br />Name the parent compound<br />End will be –amine<br />Add alkyl groups<br />Alphabetical order<br ...
Carboxylic Acids<br />organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group<br />General formula:<br />Like inorgan...
Examples<br />acetic acid (the weak acid in vinegar)<br />citric acid<br />benzoic, propanoic, and sorbic acids (used as p...
Carboxylic Acids Found in Plants and Animals<br />
Carboxylic Acid Nomenclature<br />Name Parent Compound<br />Longest chain contains carboxyl group<br />Drop –e, add –oic a...
Esters<br />organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replac...
Common Odors and Flavors of Esters<br />
Esters Nomenclature<br />Name parent compound<br />Name carboxylic acid<br />Change –oic acid to –oate<br />Add the name o...
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Chapter 21.1 : Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

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Chapter 21.1 : Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds

  1. 1. Chapter 21.1 and 2<br />Functional Groups and Classes of Organic Compounds<br />
  2. 2. Define “functional group” and explain why functional groups are important.<br />Identify and alcohols, alkyl halides, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amines based on the functional group present in each<br />Explain the relationships between the properties and structures of compounds with various functional groups<br />Objectives:<br />
  3. 3. Functional Groups<br />An atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound<br />Compounds that contain the same functional group can be classed together<br />Makes properties that are very different from those of the corresponding hydrocarbon.<br />
  4. 4. Comparing Classes of Organic Compounds<br />
  5. 5. Common Functional Groups<br />
  6. 6. More Functional Groups<br />
  7. 7. Alcohols<br />Organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups<br />General formula for a class of organic compounds<br />Consists of the functional group and the letter R<br />which stands for the rest of the molecule<br />General formula for alcohols <br />R–OH<br />Hydroxyl group, –OH, <br />Makes alcohols able to hydrogen-bond<br />makes them soluble in water<br />
  8. 8. Uses of Alcohols<br />Lotions, creams, and cosmetics<br />usually contain an alcohol called glycerol to keep them moist<br />Alternative fuels<br />Ex: gasohol, a one-to-nine ratio of ethanol and gasoline<br />Simple alcohols - Ethanol<br />Poisonous to some extent<br />
  9. 9. Alkyl Halides<br />Organic compounds in which one or more halogen atoms—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine—<br />are substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon<br />General formula of an alkyl halideis<br />R–X (where X represents any halogen).<br />EX: <br />Chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs (implicated in ozone-layer depletion)<br />Teflon®, a polymer made from tetrafluoroethene, C2F4<br />
  10. 10. Ethers<br />organic compounds in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen<br />General formula of an ether: <br />R–O–R’<br />R’ represents a hydrocarbon group<br />R same or different hydrocarbon group<br />Not very reactive compounds<br />Relatively nonpolar<br />Uses: <br />Solvents<br />Some have pleasant odors, used in perfumes<br />
  11. 11. Alcohol Nomenclature<br />Name Parent hydrocarbon:<br />Longest chain containing hydroxyl group<br />Drop –e, add –ol<br />More than one hydroxyl group<br />2 -diol<br />3 -triol<br />Number so hydroxyl group has lowest number possible<br />Insert number immediately before name of parent hydrocarbon<br />OH<br />OH<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />1-butanol<br />2,2 - butandiol<br />OH<br />
  12. 12. Alkyl Halide Nomenclature<br />Name Parent hydrocarbon<br />Find longest chain<br />Prefixes for halogens --- fluoro, bromo, chloro , iodo<br />If more than one, put in alphabetical order<br />If more than one of the same, use prefixes di, tri, tetra<br />Number carbon atoms<br />Lowest number in it’s name<br />If halogen in same position – alphabetical<br />Br<br />Br<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />Cl<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />1,2 - dibromobutane<br />Cl<br />1,1,1,3 - tetrachlorobutane<br />
  13. 13. Ether Nomenclature<br />Name the parent compound<br />The word ether will come at the end of the name<br />Add names of alkyl groups<br />Arrange names in alphabetical order<br />If both are same, use prefix –di<br />Leave spaces in the name<br />Space between alkyl group names and ether<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />diethyl ether<br />ethyl propyl ether<br />
  14. 14. Contain the carbonyl group.<br />Aldehydes<br />organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom at the end of a carbon-carbon chain<br />Ketones<br />organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain<br />Aldehydes and Ketones<br />
  15. 15. The general formula for an aldehyde is:<br />The general formula for a ketone is:<br />Aldehydes and ketones are often responsible for certain odors and flavors<br />
  16. 16. Locate parent compound<br />Longest chain containing carbonyl group<br />Always number carbonyl group as 1<br />Change –e to –al<br />All other rules apply (ex: number from side closest to the carbonyl group<br />Aldehyde Nomenclature<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />propanal<br />3,3 - dimethylpropanal<br />2 – ethyl pentanal<br />
  17. 17. Locate Parent compound<br />Must contain carbonyl group and it must contain the lowest number<br />Change –e to –one<br />All other rules apply<br />Ketone Nomenclature<br />O<br />O<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />propanone<br />2 - pentanone<br />C<br />2,2 - dimethyl – 3 - pentanone<br />
  18. 18. Amines<br />Amines<br />Organic compounds that can be considered to be derivatives of ammonia, NH3<br />General formula of an amine :<br />Amines are common in nature. <br />Often form during the breakdown of proteins in animal cells<br />The unshared electron pair on the nitrogen makes amines act as weak bases in aqueous solutions:<br />
  19. 19. Amine Nomenclature<br />Name the parent compound<br />End will be –amine<br />Add alkyl groups<br />Alphabetical order<br />Use prefixes, di-, tri-<br />H<br />H<br />C<br />C<br />H<br />N<br />C<br />C<br />N<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />N<br />methylamine<br />ethylmethylamine<br />trimethylamine<br />PRIMARY AMINE<br />SECONDARY AMINE<br />TERTIARY AMINE<br />
  20. 20. Carboxylic Acids<br />organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group<br />General formula:<br />Like inorganic acids<br />Carboxylic acids react to lose a hydrogen ion and become a negatively charged ion in water<br />
  21. 21. Examples<br />acetic acid (the weak acid in vinegar)<br />citric acid<br />benzoic, propanoic, and sorbic acids (used as preservatives)<br />Much weaker than many <br />inorganic acids<br />
  22. 22. Carboxylic Acids Found in Plants and Animals<br />
  23. 23. Carboxylic Acid Nomenclature<br />Name Parent Compound<br />Longest chain contains carboxyl group<br />Drop –e, add –oic acid<br />More than one, use full name of parent compound (don’t drop -e )<br />-dioic acid = 2, -trioc acid = 3<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />OH<br />C<br />C<br />OH<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />OH<br />C<br />HO<br />propanoic acid<br />C<br />ethanedioic acid<br />3 - methylbutanoic acid<br />
  24. 24. Esters<br />organic compounds that have carboxylic acid groups in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group<br />General formula:<br />considered derivatives of carboxylic acids because of their structural similarity to carboxylic acids<br />Like aldehydes and ketones, esters are responsible for many common odors and flavors<br />
  25. 25. Common Odors and Flavors of Esters<br />
  26. 26. Esters Nomenclature<br />Name parent compound<br />Name carboxylic acid<br />Change –oic acid to –oate<br />Add the name of the alkyl group<br />This will be the front of the name<br />O<br />O<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />Methyl butanoate<br />ethyl propanoate<br />

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