Chapter 20.1 : Introduction to Carbon and Organic Chemistry
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Chapter 20.1 : Introduction to Carbon and Organic Chemistry

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    Chapter 20.1 : Introduction to Carbon and Organic Chemistry Chapter 20.1 : Introduction to Carbon and Organic Chemistry Presentation Transcript

    • Carbon and Hydrocarbons
      Organic Chemistry
    • Chapter 20.1 and 2
      Abundance and Importance of CarbonAnd Organic Compounds
    • Explain how the structure and bonding of carbon lead to the diversity and number of organic compounds.
      Compare the use of molecular and structural formulas to represent organic compounds.
      Compare structural and geometric isomers of organic compounds.
      Objectives:
    • Carbon
      Earth’s crust
      17th in abundance by mass
      Found in all living matter
      Body tissue and foods we eat
      Found in Fuels
      Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and wood
      Group 14 element
      Mostly nonmetallic properties
      1s22s22p2 --- electron configuration
      sp3 hybridization
      promotes
      Four bonding orbitals (sp3)
      1s
      2s
      2p
      1s
      2s
      2p
    • CH4 – methane
      Tetrahedral shape
      Zigzag shape with multiple single bonds
      C2H4 – ethene
      Double bond
      sp2 hybrid
      C2H2 – ethyne
      Triple bond
      sp hybrid
    • Allotropes of Carbon
      Diamond
      Colorless, crystalline solid
      Hardest material known
      m.p. above 3500 oC
      Conducts heat
      Covalent network bonding
      Uses: jewelry, cutting, drilling, grinding
      Graphite
      Soft, black, crystalline
      Fair conductor of electricity (delocalized electron)
      Soft, feels greasy
      Less dense, strong – in sporting goods and aircraft
      Hexagonal layers
      Uses : pencil “lead”, lubricant
    • Fullerenes
      Part of soot formed when carbon – containing materials are burned with limited oxygen.
      Near spherical cages
      Most stable – C60
      Also known as “buckyballs”
    • All organic compounds
      contain carbon atoms
      Not all carbon-containing compounds are classified as organic.
      Ex: Na2CO3, CO, and CO2 are considered inorganic.
      Organic compounds
      defined as: covalently bonded compounds containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides.
      Organic Compounds
    • Carbon Bonding and the Diversity of Organic Compounds
      Carbon-Carbon Bonding
      The diversity of organic compounds results from the uniqueness of carbon’s structure and bonding
      Form long chains and rings of covalently bonded atoms
      Catenation
      covalent bonding of an element to itself to form chains or rings
      Carbon atoms can be linked by single, double, or triple covalent bonds
      Carbon atoms bind readily to elements with similar electronegativities
    • Hydrocarbons
      Composed of only carbon and hydrogen
      Simplest organic compounds.
      Other organic compounds
      contain hydrocarbon backbones to which other elements, primarily O, N, S, and the halogens, are attached.
      Bonding capabilities of carbon
      allow for many different arrangements of atoms
      Some compounds may contain the same atoms
      but have different properties because the atoms are arrangeddifferently
      EX: the molecular formula C2H4O represents both ethanol and dimethyl ether
      Isomers
      Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures
    • Organic chemists use structural formulas to represent organic compounds.
      Structural formula
      indicates the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also the arrangement of the atoms.
      Ex: a structural formula for one isomer of C4H10 is the following
      Condensed:
      Structural Formulas
      C
      C
      C
      C
    • Structural formulas
      do not accurately show the 3-D shape of molecules
    • Isomers
      Structural isomers
      also called “constitutional isomers”
      atoms are bonded together in different orders
      EX: the atoms of C4H10 can be arranged in two different ways:
      Geometric isomers
      the order of atom bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms in space is different
      1,2-dichloroethene
      cis
      trans