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Chapter 19.1: Oxidation and Reduction

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Chapter 19.1: Oxidation and Reduction Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 19.1
    Oxidation and Reduction
  • 2. Objectives:
    Assign oxidation numbers to reactant and product species.
    Defineoxidation and reduction.
    Explain what an oxidation-reduction reaction (redox reaction) is.
  • 3. Oxidation States
    • The oxidation number assigned to an element in a molecule is based on the distribution of electrons in that molecule.
    • 4. The rules by which oxidation numbers are assigned are summarized on the next slide.
    potassium dichromate
    chromium (III) chloride
    potassium chromate
    chromium (II) chloride
  • 5. Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
  • 6. Assigning Oxidation Numbers
  • 7. Oxidation
    • Reactions in which the atoms or ions of an element experience an increase in oxidation state are oxidation processes.
    • 8. A species whose oxidation number increases is oxidized.
  • Reduction
    • Reactions in which the oxidation state of an element decreases arereductionprocesses.
    • 9. A species that undergoes a decrease in oxidation state is reduced.
    Tungsten from Tungsten Oxide
    Aluminum from Aluminum Oxide
  • 10. Oxidation and Reduction as a Process
    • Any chemical process in which elements undergo changes in oxidation number is an oxidation-reduction reaction.
    • 11. This name is often shortened to redox reaction.
    • 12. The part of the reaction involving oxidation or reduction alone can be written as a half-reaction.
    • Equations for the reaction between nitric acid and copper illustrate the relationship between half-reactions and the overall redox reaction.
    (oxidation half-reaction)
    (reduction half-reaction)
    (redox reaction)
  • 13. Redox Reactions and Covalent Bonds
    • When hydrogen burns in chlorine, a covalent bond forms from the sharing of two electrons.
    • 14. The pair of electrons is more strongly attracted to the chlorine atom because of its higher electronegativity.
    • 15. Neither atom has totally lost or totally gained any electrons.
    • 16. Hydrogen has donated a share of its bonding electron to the chlorine but has not completely transferred that electron.
  • Particle Model for a Redox Reaction