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Chapter 15.3 : Acid - Base Reactions
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Chapter 15.3 : Acid - Base Reactions

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  • 1. Acid-base reactions
    Chapter 15.3
  • 2. Conjugate acids and bases
    Conjugate base
    Species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton
    Conjugate acid
    Species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton
    HF + H2O H3O+ + F-
    HF + H2O H3O+ + F-
    acid
    Conjugate base
    base
    Conjugate acid
  • 3. Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases
    The stronger the acid, the weaker it’s conjugate base
    The stronger the base, the weaker it’s conjugate acid
    Proton-transfer reactions favor the PRODUCTION of weaker acids and bases.
    HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-
    HF + H2O H3O+ + F-
    Strong acid
    weak base
    weaker acid
    stronger base
    weaker base
    stronger acid
  • 4. Amphoteric Compounds
    Any species that can react as either an acid or a base
    H2SO4 + H2O H3O+ + HSO4-
    NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
    H2O is amphoteric
    acid
    base
    base
    acid
    acid
    base
    acid
    base
  • 5. -OH in a molecule
    -OH hydroxyl group
    Molecular compound with –OH
    Can be acidic or amphoteric
    More electronegative form compounds with acidic hydroxyl groups
    Basic amphoteric acidic
    Cr(OH)2 Cr(OH)3 H2CrO4
    The more oxygen, the more acidic
  • 6. Strong Acid-Strong Base Neutralization
    • HCl (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(aq)
    • 7. Sodium Hydroxide dissociates in water
    • 8. NaOH(aq) Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
    • 9. Hydrochloric Acid ionizes in water
    • 10. HCl (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+(aq) + Cl- (aq)
    • 11. When the two are mixed:
    • 12. H3O+(aq) + Cl- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
    Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + H2O (l)
    Net ionic equation:
    H3O+(aq) + OH- (aq) H2O (l)
    Neutralization – reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
    Salt – ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.
  • 13. Acid Rain
    Industrial Processes
    Produce – NO, NO2, CO2, SO2, SO3
    SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq)
    atmosphere rain acid rain