Acid-base reactions<br />Chapter 15.3<br />
Conjugate acids and bases<br />Conjugate base<br />Species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton<...
Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases<br />The stronger the acid, the weaker it’s conjugate base<br />The stronger the bas...
Amphoteric Compounds<br />Any species that can react as either an acid or a base<br />H2SO4   +    H2O               H3O+ ...
-OH in a molecule<br />-OH     hydroxyl group<br />Molecular compound with –OH<br />Can be acidic or amphoteric<br />More ...
Strong Acid-Strong Base Neutralization<br /><ul><li>HCl (aq) +    NaOH(aq)              NaCl(aq)   +   H2O(aq)
Sodium Hydroxide dissociates in water
NaOH(aq)                 Na+ (aq)   +   OH- (aq)
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Chapter 15.3 : Acid - Base Reactions

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Chapter 15.3 : Acid - Base Reactions

  1. 1. Acid-base reactions<br />Chapter 15.3<br />
  2. 2. Conjugate acids and bases<br />Conjugate base<br />Species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton<br />Conjugate acid<br />Species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton<br />HF + H2O H3O+ + F-<br />HF + H2O H3O+ + F-<br />acid<br />Conjugate base<br />base<br />Conjugate acid<br />
  3. 3. Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases<br />The stronger the acid, the weaker it’s conjugate base<br />The stronger the base, the weaker it’s conjugate acid<br />Proton-transfer reactions favor the PRODUCTION of weaker acids and bases.<br />HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-<br />HF + H2O H3O+ + F-<br />Strong acid<br />weak base<br />weaker acid<br />stronger base<br />weaker base<br />stronger acid<br />
  4. 4. Amphoteric Compounds<br />Any species that can react as either an acid or a base<br />H2SO4 + H2O H3O+ + HSO4-<br />NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-<br />H2O is amphoteric<br />acid<br />base<br />base<br />acid<br />acid<br />base<br />acid<br />base<br />
  5. 5. -OH in a molecule<br />-OH hydroxyl group<br />Molecular compound with –OH<br />Can be acidic or amphoteric<br />More electronegative form compounds with acidic hydroxyl groups<br />Basic amphoteric acidic<br /> Cr(OH)2 Cr(OH)3 H2CrO4<br />The more oxygen, the more acidic<br />
  6. 6. Strong Acid-Strong Base Neutralization<br /><ul><li>HCl (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(aq)
  7. 7. Sodium Hydroxide dissociates in water
  8. 8. NaOH(aq) Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)
  9. 9. Hydrochloric Acid ionizes in water
  10. 10. HCl (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+(aq) + Cl- (aq)
  11. 11. When the two are mixed:
  12. 12. H3O+(aq) + Cl- (aq) + Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)</li></ul> Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) + H2O (l)<br />Net ionic equation:<br />H3O+(aq) + OH- (aq) H2O (l)<br />Neutralization – reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules<br />Salt – ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.<br />
  13. 13. Acid Rain<br />Industrial Processes<br />Produce – NO, NO2, CO2, SO2, SO3<br />SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq)<br /> atmosphere rain acid rain <br />

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