Chapter 13.2 : The Solution Process
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  • 1. The solution process
    Chapter 13.2
    Objectives :
    List and explain three factors that affect the rate at which a solid solute dissolves in a liquid solvent.
    Explain solution equilibrium, and distinguish among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.
    Explain the meaning of “like dissolves like” in terms of polar and nonpolar substances.
    List the three interactions that contribute to the heat of solution, and explain what causes dissolution to be exothermic or endothermic.
    Compare the effects of temperature and pressure on solubility.
  • 2. Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution
    Increasing the surface area of the solute
    Sugar cube will dissolve slower than ground up sugar
    Agitating a solution
    Stir your iced tea and the sugar
    will dissolve faster.
    Heating a Solvent
    Sugar dissolves faster in hot tea
  • 3. Solubility
    Solution equilibrium
    Physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates.
    Saturated solution
    Solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
    Example: At 20oC, 35.9 g of NaCl is the maximum amount that will dissolve in 100. g of water
    Unsaturated solution
    Solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under existing conditions
  • 4. Supersaturated solutions
    Solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under the same conditions.
    Disturbing solution will cause rapid crystallization
    Video demonstration 1
    Video demonstration 2
    Solvent : water
    Solute : glucose
  • 5. Solute-Solvent Interactions
    “Like dissolves Like”
    Polar will dissolve polar
    Nonpolar will dissolve nonpolar
    Polar will NOT dissolve in nonpolar
    Dissolving ionic compounds in aqueous solutions
    Hydration : solution process with water as the solvent
    CuSO4•5H2O - hydrate
    Crystalline compounds that incorporate water molecules
  • 6. Nonpolar solvents
    Carbon tetrachloride and toluene
    Substances similar to oil
    Liquid solutes and solvents
    Immiscible
    LIQUID solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other
    Example: oil and vinegar
    Miscible
    Liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportions
    Ethanol and water
  • 7. Effects of Pressure on Solubility
    Increase in pressure – increases gas solubilities in liquids
    gas + solvent solution
    Henry’s Law
    Solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid.
    Effervescence
    Rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissolved
    Mentos demo
  • 8. Effects of Temperature on Solubility
    For gaseoussolutes
    Increase in temperature
    Decrease in solubility
    For solid solutes
    Increase in temperature
    Increase in solubility
  • 9. Heats of solution
    Formation of solution – accompanied by energy change
    Dissolving KI
    Feels cold
    Dissolving LiCl
    Feels hot
    Examples of graphing different heats of solutions
    Solvated : A solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules
    • Heat of Solution – net amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a specific amount of solute dissolves