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Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
Chapter 12.1 : Liquids
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Chapter 12.1 : Liquids

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  • 1. Liquids
    Chapter 12.1
    Objectives
    Describe the motion of particles in liquids and the properties of liquids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.
    Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a gas. Define vaporization.
    Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a solid. Define freezing.
  • 2. Liquids
    Examples:
    Oceans, lakes, rivers
    Hard to believe – liquids are the least common state in the universe
    Why?
    Narrow temperature range they can exist in!
  • 3. Properties of Liquids and Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    Definite volume, take shape of container
    According to Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    Liquid’s particles are:
    In constant random motion
    Closer together than gases, there are attractive forces
    More ordered than gases, so particles are held together, but do have mobility.
    Fluid: substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container
  • 4. Relatively High Density
    Thousands of times denser than gases
    Slightly less dense than solids
    Due to the close arrangement of liquid particles
  • 5. Relative Incompressibility
    Less compressible because particles are packed together
    Ability to Diffuse
    • Liquids will diffuse in other liquids it can dissolve in.
    • 6. Constant, random motion of particles
    • 7. Much slower in liquids than in gases
  • Surface Tension
    Force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size.
    Water has high surface tension
    Hydrogen bonding are strong intermolecular forces
    Capillary Action
    Attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
  • 8. Evaporation and Boiling
    Vaporization:
    Process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
    Evaporation:
    Process by which particles escape from the surface of a non-boiling liquid and enter the gas state.
    Boiling:
    Change in liquid to bubbles of vapor that appear throughout the liquid.
  • 9. Formation of Solids
    When liquid is cooled, average kinetic energy decreases
    Particles slow down
    Attractive forces pull into an orderly arrangement
    Freezing (solidification):
    Physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of heat.

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