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Applied Chapter 5.3 : Names and Formulas of Compounds
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Applied Chapter 5.3 : Names and Formulas of Compounds

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  • 1. Chapter 5.3
    Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds
  • 2. Objectives
    Name cations, anions, and ionic compounds
    Write chemical formulas for ionic compounds such that an overall neutral charge is maintained.
    Explain how polyatomic ions and their salts are named and how their formulas relate to their names.
  • 3. Chemical names and Formulas
    Calcium carbonate –
    Sodium chloride –
    Dihydrogen monoxide –
    These are their chemical and common names
    Chemical names help to describe the atomic makeup of the compounds
  • 4. Chemical formula for ionic compound
    Ionic compound consists of lattice of positive and negative ions held together by mutual attraction.
    Chemical formula represented by one unit cell
    Simplest ratio of the compounds positive and negative ions
    Aluminum sulfate below consists of aluminum cations and sulfate ions
    Al2(SO4)3
    Subscript 3 refers to everything inside the parentheses giving 3 sulfate ions, with a total of 3 sulfur atoms and 12 oxygen atoms
    Subscript 2 refers to 2 Aluminum atoms
    Subscript 4 refers to 4 oxygen atoms in the sulfate ion
    Note: when you only have one of an atom, no subscript is used
    Note: parentheses are used to identify polyatomic ion as one unit
  • 5. Monatomic ions
    Ions formed from a single atom
    Examples
    Na+1 lose one electron
    Mg2+
    S2- gain two electrons
    N-3
    Cl1-
    • Not all main-group elements readily form ions
    • 6. Examples
    • 7. Carbon & Silicon form covalent bonds
    • 8. d-block elements form variable charges
    • 9. examples
    • 10. Copper, can be Cu+1 or Cu+2
    • 11. Iron, can be Fe+2 or Fe+3
    • 12. Lead, can bePb+2, Pb+3, or Pb+4
  • Naming Monatomic ions
    Positive ions
    Name of element
    Ex: K+ Potassium
    Mg+2 Magnesium
    Al+3 __________
    Sr+2 __________
    • Negative ions
    • 13. Base of element + -ide ending
    • 14. Ex: F-1 Fluoride
    N-3 Nitride
    O-2 _______
    Br-1 _______
  • 15. Naming binary ionic compounds
    Nomenclature
    Naming system
    • Name Al2O3
    • 16. Name cation first : full name of cation
    • 17. Aluminum
    • 18. Name Anion last : base of anion + -ide
    • 19. oxide
    Al2O3
    aluminum oxide
  • 20. Practice Naming and Writing Formulas
    • Name
    AgCl
    ZnO
    SrF2
    silver chloride
    zinc oxide
    strontium fluoride
    • Write the formulas for
    Zinc iodide
    Zinc sulfide
    Aluminum sulfide
    ZnI2
    ZnS
    Al2S3
  • 21. Stock System of Nomenclature
    Some cations may have two or more different charges
    Use stock system of naming (usually with d-block elements)
    • Roman numeral represents charge in parentheses
    • 22. Fe+2 Fe+3
    Iron(II) Iron(III)
    • Some cations that commonly form only one cation
    • 23. Do not use roman numerals ( main group elements)
    • 24. No Anions form more than one charge
    +2
    -1
    CuCl2
    copper(II)
    chloride
  • 25. Practice stock system
    Write formula and give name for compound formed by ions Cr+3 and F-1
    CrF3
    chromium(III) fluoride
    • Write formulas and give name for the following ionic compounds:
    CuBr2
    copper(II) bromide
    Cu+2 and Br-1
    Fe+2 and O-2
    FeO
    iron(II) oxide
    Fe+3 and O-2
    Fe2O3
    iron(III) oxide
  • 26. Compounds containing Polyatomic Ions
    All but NH4+, ammonium ion, are negatively charged
    Most are oxyanions
    Examples
    NO3-1 NO2-1
    nitrate
    nitrite
    • Most common anion has –ate ending
    • 27. Anion with one less oxygen has –ite ending
    • 28. Anion with two less oxygen has hypo prefix and –ite ending
    • 29. Anion with one extra oxygen has per prefix and –ate ending
    ClO3-1
    ClO2-1
    ClO-1
    ClO4-1
    hypochlorite
    perchlorate
    chlorate
    chlorite
  • 30. Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
    Same as naming for ionic compounds except
    Name polyatomic ion as one unit
    Example:
    AgNO3
    Use parentheses if more than one polyatomic ion
    Example
    Al2(SO4)3
    silver nitrate
    Show 2 Al+3 ions and 3 SO4-2 ions
    aluminum sulfate
  • 31. Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
    Write the formula for these:
    tin(IV) sulfate
    calcium chloride
    lithium nitrate
    calcium nitrite
    potassium perchlorate
    Sn(SO4)2
    CaCl2
    LiNO3
    Ca(NO2)2
    KClO4
    • Write the names for these:
    Ag2O
    Ca(OH)2
    NH4OH
    FeCrO4
    KClO
    silver oxide
    calcium hydroxide
    ammonium hydroxide
    iron(II) chromate
    potassium hypochlorite

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