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Applied Chapter 4.3 :Trends in the Periodic Table
 

Applied Chapter 4.3 :Trends in the Periodic Table

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    Applied Chapter 4.3 :Trends in the Periodic Table Applied Chapter 4.3 :Trends in the Periodic Table Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 4.3
      Trends in the Periodic Table
    • Objective 1:
      Describe periodic trends in ionization energy, atomic radius, electronegativity, and ionic size; and relate and relate them to atomic structures of the elements.
      Trend : predictable change in a particular direction
      Trends in reactivitydown a group of Alkali Metals
    • Atomic Radii
      Defined as one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
      Period trends
      Decrease from left to right
      • Group trends
      • Increase down a group
    • Atomic Radii
    • Ionization Energy
      Defined as energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element (IE)
      A + energy A+ + e-
      • Ion – atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
    • Ionization Energy
      Period trends
      Generally increase across a period
      • Group trends
      • Generally decrease down a group
    • Ionic radii
      Cation – positive ion
      Formed by loss of one or more electrons
      • Anion– negative ion
      • Formed by gain of one or more electrons
      Ionic Radii
    • Valence Electrons
      Defined as the electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
      Valence electron
      Sodium atom
      Chlorine atom
    • Electronegativity
      Defined as the measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
      Want to gain electrons!!
      Noble gases have very low electronegativity
      Alkali metals are low as well
      Halogens have the highest
      Electronegativity
      • Period trends
      • Tend to increase across a period
      • Group trends
      • Tend to decrease down a group