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# Applied Chapter 2.1 : Energy

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### Applied Chapter 2.1 : Energy

1. 1. Chapter 2.1 : Energy<br />Matter and Energy<br />
2. 2. Objective 1 : <br />Explain that physical and chemical changes in matter involve transfers of energy<br />Energy : capacity to do work<br />Move an object<br />Form a new compound<br />Generate light<br />Always involved in a change of matter.<br />Physical change : change matter from 1 form to another without changing identity of substance.<br />Water boiling Evaporation<br />Wax melting<br />Chemical Change : change in matter into entirely new substance.<br />Combustion of candle – Changed into CO2 and H2O<br />
3. 3. Matter and Energy<br />
4. 4. Objective 2<br />Apply the law of conservation of energy to analyze changes in matter<br />Law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from 1 form to another.<br />2 Types of processes<br />Endothermic : energy is absorbed<br />Example: melting ice, ice pack<br />Exothermic : energy is released<br />Example: freezing of water, Explosive reactions (TNT) <br />System : part being studied<br />Ice cube<br />Surroundings : everything else<br />air around ice cube<br />Transfer of energy in different forms<br />Photosynthesis<br />Light stick<br />Combustion in a car<br />
5. 5. Exothermic and Endothermic Changes<br />
6. 6. Objective 3<br />Distinguish between heat and temperature.<br />Heat : energy transferred between objects<br />Ice cube melting on a hot day – physical change<br />Candle burning – chemical change<br />Energy released as heat<br />Grandcamp explosion<br />Kinetic energy – energy of motion<br />Energy absorbed as heat<br />Baking powder in a cake<br />2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2<br />Heat is needed for reaction to occur<br />Temperature<br />Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object<br />
7. 7. Heat versus Temperature<br />
8. 8. Objective 4<br />Convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales<br />Different Temperature scales<br />Celsius(oC) Fahrenheit(oF) Kelvin(K)<br />373<br />100<br />212<br />0<br />273<br />32<br /><ul><li>Kelvin Temperature scale
9. 9. Absolute zero – all particle movement stops
10. 10. t(oC) = T(K) – 273.15 T (K) = t (oC) + 273.15</li></li></ul><li>May not affect temperature<br />Heat of vaporization <br />Heat of fusion<br />Transfer of heat<br />100 oC<br />Temperature<br />O oC<br />Energy added as heat<br />
11. 11. Affects substances differently <br />Specific heat :<br />Quantity of heat needed to raise a certain mass of substance 1 oC<br />Express in (J/g.K)<br />Examples:<br />Water – high specific heat<br />Metal – low specific heat<br />Transfer of heat<br />