Academic Integrityand UnderstandingPlagiarismWhat it is and how youcan avoid it Patricia Campbell, Ph.D. , Dean of Graduate Studies
This PowerPoint will cover thefollowing: Discuss the consequences of plagiarism in and outside of the academic setting Identify various types of plagiarism Discuss when you need to cite your sources Identify the differences between quoting and paraphrasing, and how much quoting is permissible Review in-text parenthetical citations (Turabian) Discuss tips for avoiding plagiarism Examine some examples and determine whether or not they constitute plagiarism
Plagiarism: Serious ConsequencesA famous writer andhistorian’s reputationwas seriouslydamaged and she wasforced to resign fromthe Pulitzer Prize boardafter it was revealedthat her book usednumerous passagesfrom other bookswithout citing them.
Plagiarism: Serious ConsequencesA famous musicianwas found guilty ofplagiarism andforced to paycompensation forsimilarities betweenhis song "My SweetLord" and TheChiffons hit "HesSo Fine.”
Plagiarism: Serious ConsequencesIn 2003, an up-and-coming New YorkTimes reporter wasforced to resign whenit was discovered that36 of the 73 nationalnews stories he hadwritten included ethicalinfractions, such asmaking up content andcopying passagesfrom other journalists’articles.
Plagiarism: SeriousConsequences “Two Students “Men At Work Kicked off Guilty Of Ripping Semester at Sea Off „Land Down for Plagiarism” Under‟ Melody”http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/paper- In 2010, the Australian band was trail/2008/08/14/two-students-kicked-off-semester-at- sea-for-plagiarism found guilty of copying their song “Land Down Under” from a 70 year CBS news producer old children’s song “Kookaburra Sits in the Old Gum Tree.” The penalty fired for plagiarism could cost the writers of “Land Downhttp://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18045526/ Under” millions.
You could lose you Job!Hungarian presidentresigns overdoctorate plagiarismscandal http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/apr/02/hungar ian-president-resigns-doctorate-plagiarism Photo from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe- 17586128
For more information on famousplagiarists…http://www.famousplagiarists.com/index.htm l
At APUS Plagiarism = CheatingUsing an assignment, or part of an assignment for more than one class is also cheating. This is self-plagiarism.
AUPS’s Policy: Plagiarism =CheatingCheating is the intentional attempt tomisrepresent academic achievement. Thisincludes plagiarism, which the StudentHandbook defines as: “the adoption or incorporation of another’s ideas without proper attribution of the source. It is more simply defined as takingthe writings of another person or people and representing them to be one’s own”(Student Handbook).
Consequences Any student who is discovered to be cheating or is suspected of cheating will be notified of the offense by the instructor. The instructor is required to notify the School Program Director immediately. The School Program Direction and Dean will determine the appropriate penalty. The penalties for cheating are: Mark of zero on the test or assignment. An automatic grade of F with immediate dismissal from course. “Students who are found guilty of plagiarism will have an entry made in their student record. An additional violation of the standards of academic honesty may result in dismissal from the University System.” (Student Handbook)
Plagiarism beyond the obvious offensesIt’s not justbuying a termpaper or“borrowing” apaper from afriend who tookthe samecourse…
Plagiarism beyond the obvious offenses “quote”An incorporation of another’sideas without properly citingthe source. Failure to use quotation marks when it is a quote. According to Sam Johnson, Failure to acknowledge the professor of bioengineering at original source when you Stanford University, there are many paraphrase. reasons why grass does not grow Failure to provide citation well in space (2010, 115). information for the source. Works Cited Note that you cannot reuse Smits, Marieke, Dominique Sluijsmans, and Wim your own work. In other Jochems. "The Effects of a Competency-oriented words, you can not use Learning Environment and Tutor Feedback on Students Reflection Skills." Assessment & portions of one assignment Evaluation in Higher Education 34.5 (2009): 491- for more than one class. 498. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2010.
To Cite or not to Cite?You should cite when… You don‟t need to cite you give statistics when… the information is unique the information is and not known by most commonly known (either people by the general population, or commonly the reader might ask known within the “how do you know particular discipline) that?” most or all of your you use a direct quotation sources repeat the same from someone else general idea. you use someone else’s it is your own original ideas thought or opinion you paraphrase a direct
Quoting and Paraphrasing:What is the Difference?A direct quote is taking a key phrase,or two or more words in order, froman outside source. Quotation marksare required. Quotes cannot make upmore than 10% of the text of yourassignment. According to Hawkins, lemurs are “unlikely candidates to replace dogs as America’s favorite pet” (2001, 7).
Quoting and Paraphrasing What is the Difference?A paraphrase is rewording the idea of theoriginal passage – it is NOT rearranging theauthor’s words. Quotation marks are notnecessary but citations are. ParaphrasesMUST be substantially different than theoriginal sentences from your source. Hawkins discusses at great length the efforts of the American Association for Lemur Acceptance (AALA) to raise American’s consciousness about the value of lemurs. He explains that lemurs are not only cute but also excellent dancers (2001,
Quoting and Paraphrasing What is the Difference?Rearranging, changing, or leaving outa word or two from an original passagedoes not make it a paraphrase – theentire passage must be rewritten inyour own words.
In-Text Parenthetical Citations (Turabian/Chicago)References to sources are made directly in the body ofthe text using parentheses. The parenthetical citationincludes the author and the page number where thedirect quote can be found.Example: The education strategy is described as “a pattern of behavior designed to gain the cooperation of followers in accomplishing organizational goals” (Lashway 2001, 5).OR Lashway describes the education strategy as “a pattern of behavior designed to gain the cooperation of followers in accomplishing organizational goals” (2001, 5).OR
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism Read a passage, and then write your interpretation of it with the book closed. Do not attempt to paraphrase with the passage right in front of you if you feel unsure about how to do it. Double check to make sure you did not accidently copy phrases. Cite every piece of information that is not common knowledge. This includes opinions, arguments, and speculations as well as facts, details, figures, and statistics. Use quotation marks every time you use the authors words. Quotes of five lines or more are indented as block quotes and single spaced. In this case, quotation marks are omitted but the sources is cited. Block quotes should be used infrequently.
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism, Con’t. At the beginning of the first sentence in which you quote, paraphrase, or summarize, make it clear that what comes next is someone elses idea: According to Smith... Jones says... In his 1987 study, Robinson proved... At the end of the last sentence containing quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material, insert a parenthetical citation (or footnote, depending on the specific class requirement) to show where the material came from.
ExamplesThe following examples are from the Schoolof Education at Indiana UniversityBloomington’s “How to RecognizePlagiarism” website:https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/examples.html
Is this an example ofplagiarism?Original Source Material: Student‟s TextConstructivism is a Constructivists do not holdmovement that extends views entirely opposed tobeyond the beliefs of the those of the cognitivists. Thecognitivist. It considers the position of constructivistsengagement of students in extends beyond the beliefs ofmeaningful experiences as the cognitivist.the essence of learning. Theshift is from passive transferof information to active Works Citedproblem solving. Heinich, Robert, et al.Constructivists emphasize Instructional Media andthat learners create their own Technologies for Learning.interpretations of the world of Upper Saddle River, NJ:information. Prentice-Hall, 1999.
YesBecause the student has not used quotesfor the direct words that were taken fromthe author.
Is this an example of plagiarism?Original Source Student‟s TextMaterial: The concept of Frick states that “a system hassystems is really quite parts that fit together to make a whole" but the importantsimple. The basic idea is aspect of systems is “howthat a system has parts those parts are connected orthat fit together to make a related to each other" (1991,17).whole; but where it gets Works Citedcomplicated -- and Frick, Theodore W.interesting -- is how those Restructuring Educationparts are connected or Through Technology.related to each other. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational
No• The passage begins with the author’s name.• Quotation marks are used to indicate that the passages are word-for-word citations from the original document.• The author is also listed in the references.
Is this an example of plagiarism?Original Source Student Paper: Over the last tenMaterial: During the last years, there has been a markeddecade, there has been a change from "instructivist" points ofshift from "instructivist" view to "constructivist" points of viewapproaches towards among instructional designers."constructivist" approaches in Instructivist points of view hold thethe field of instructional belief that the role of knowledge isdesign. Instructivist fundamentally to represent the realapproaches reflect the belief world. In this view, meaning isthat the role of knowledge is determined by the real world and isbasically to represent the real therefore external to the learner.world. Meaning is eventually Works Citeddetermined by this real worldand is thus external to the Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G. van.understander. Training Complex Cognitive Skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology
YesThis example has been plagiarized. The studenthas substituted synonyms for many words in thepassage, but has not changed the structure of thetext and has used another persons ideas withoutcrediting that person for them.
Is this an example of plagiarism?Original Source Material: Student Paper: History hasTechnology has significantly demonstrated that technologytransformed education at several affects education profoundly.major turning points in our history. Considering the definition ofIn the broadest sense, the first technology broadly, one maytechnology was the primitive modesof communication used by say that prehistoric peopleprehistoric people before the used primitive technologies todevelopment of spoken language. teach skills to their youngMime, gestures, grunts, and (Frick 1991,91).drawing of figures in the sand with Works Citeda stick were methods used to Frick, Theodore W. Restructuringcommunicate - yes, even to Education Througheducate. Even without speech, Technology. Bloomington, IN:these prehistoric people were able Phi Delta Kappa Educationalto teach their young how to catch Foundation, 1991.
NoThis example has been paraphrased and isnot considered plagiarized. The student hascited the original author and included anappropriate entry in the reference list.
Is this an example ofplagiarism?Original Source Student Paper: One kind ofMaterial: A naïve mental model for the computer ismental model in the the naïve model. A naïve mental model in the context of computercontext of computer programming is that a computerprogramming is that is an intelligent system. Thisa computer is an model is naïve because givingintelligent system, directions to a computer is likeand that giving giving directions to a humandirections to a being.computer is like Works Citedgiving directions to a Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G. van.human being. Training Complex Cognitive Skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology
YesThis example has been plagiarizedbecause it includes copied texts from theoriginal work without giving quotation marksand citing authors within the body texts.