Un fao sofa 2010 gender and value chains coles mitchell 15 sept 09


Published on

Presentation to UN FAO, Rome on incorporating gender equity concernes into agricultural value chain analysis and development.

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Un fao sofa 2010 gender and value chains coles mitchell 15 sept 09

  1. 1. Gender and value chains<br />Presentation of paper prepared for UN FAO SOFA 2010<br />Christopher Coles and Jonathan Mitchell<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Brief introduction to VC analysis and development and the study<br />What we know about gender and value chains: desk and action research<br />How we intervene: value chain development<br />The implications for policy and practice<br />Summary<br />
  3. 3. Value chain analysis – the diagnosis<br />Is holistic<br />chain wide approach to ID of action points – from design & input supply to consumption<br />deals with everyone – men and women<br />Looks for win-win – interventions need to be economically viable to be sustainable<br />
  4. 4. Value chain development – the solution<br />Applies ‘upgrading strategies’ to actors<br />Process and product: improving efficiency and quality<br />Functional: who does what<br />Horizontal coordination: within functional ‘nodes’<br />Vertical coordination: between nodes<br />Chain: moving to a new chain using existing skills<br />Enabling environment<br />Policy, law, institutions, support organisations<br />Projects tend to be short-term, narrowly focussed and prioritise ‘quick wins’<br />
  5. 5. What determines how and where men and women participate in VCs?<br />Access to factors of production<br /><ul><li>Which functions? Women in lower margin activities/VCs, including secondary roles
  6. 6. Role of risk
  7. 7. Male appropriation
  8. 8. Women involved throughout chains, often beyond production (e.g. fisheries)
  9. 9. Which VCs?
  10. 10. Taboos & traditional norms – culture
  11. 11. perceived value e.g. local vs. export
  12. 12. Contextual differences (within a VC)</li></li></ul><li>Value chain development 2<br />Practitioners tend to be agriculturalists who:<br />Feel uncomfortable working beyond the production level<br />Often mistrust the private sector<br />
  13. 13. Study background<br />VCA&D only recently applied to development issues<br />Evidence for PEG outcomes of interventions anecdotal and descriptive<br />Systematic literature review: target group, intervention, outcomes<br />Seven action research studies in Africa and southern Asia:<br />‘What effects does applying upgrading strategies in value chains have on gender outcomes for the poor in lagging regions of developing countries?’<br /> 2 staple food crops, 1 citrus, 2 fisheries, 2 forest products<br />
  14. 14. Results: An emerging framework<br />The question of gender in value chains is posed as the question of economic empowerment of women (Pro Agri focus group)<br />Two ‘axes’ of determining factors<br />Household (individual) and chain level factors (horizontal structures in between)<br />Factors affecting participation in versus gains from economic activities in value chains<br />
  15. 15. What determines gains by men and women participating in value chains? <br />Financial gains<br />Income control and distribution: participation vs. returns; male appropriation<br />Relationship with access to factors of production <br />Non-financial gains – e.g.<br />Training and education differentials<br />Land, property and business ownership and membership of institutions<br />
  16. 16. Approaches to upgrading and gender<br />Horizontal and vertical coordination<br />Chain management - increase representation of women in groups and institutions (sometimes 100% women)<br />Strengthen horizontal and vertical linkages where women participate<br />Product, process & functional upgrading – on nodes where women have a significant presence, usually production<br />The enabling environment<br />Gender-specific codes of conduct<br />Non-gender-specific laws, regulations and policies that affect nodes in which women participate significantly<br />Service provision to women<br />
  17. 17. Upgrading outcomes<br />Planting women in committees can increase influence on chain management but doesn’t address underlying issues<br />Women’s groups can increase power at HH and chain levels but sometimes even damaging if analysis poor and men excluded<br />Vertical coordination can stabilise markets and reduce risk and vulnerability but is exclusive (not gender specific) <br />
  18. 18. Upgrading outcomes 2<br />Increases in income through process, product & functional upgrading<br />but if intrahousehold dynamics disregarded women may not benefit (participation vs gains)<br />Enabling environment<br />imposed codes limited in effectiveness if underlying issues are not addressed<br />Addressing policy bottlenecks highly effective (not gender specific)<br />
  19. 19. Current approach to gender issues in VCs: summary<br />Muddled thinking<br />Often misses underlying issues<br />Doesn’t discriminate among the ‘axes’; are issues at household or chain levels? Are they issues relating to participation or gains?<br />Lack of participation in primary functions interpreted as ‘no issue’<br />Resorting to ‘defaults’ without robust analysis<br />
  20. 20. Still a gap:<br />Service vs product chains<br />Private vs public sector chains<br />Generally little robust gender analysis of process (action research)<br />Anecdotal studies wouldn’t make it into a meta analysis!<br />We don’t get it yet<br />
  21. 21. Policy implications<br />Practitioners need our support in understanding VC gender issues and how to tackle them<br />What are the underlying issues? May need to intervene at multiple levels/action points, some outside scope of VCD project itself<br />Where in the chain are the participation/gain issues and what are the root causes?<br />Levels: individual, group, VC, cultural and policy<br />environment, service provision and support environment<br />Avoid ‘default’ generic interventions – tailor support to well analysed & understood root problems<br />
  22. 22. Summary<br />Gender issues in value chains are viewed as economic empowerment of women;<br />They are manifested along a continuum between household and chain levels;<br />They pertain to participation and gain;<br />There is a gap in understanding and (default) interventions can miss the point, be ineffective, or even cause harm;<br />Practitioners require support with analysis and intervention, particularly with addressing the wider cultural factors<br />
  23. 23. Thank you<br />