Un fao sofa 2010 gender and value chains coles mitchell 15 sept 09

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Presentation to UN FAO, Rome on incorporating gender equity concernes into agricultural value chain analysis and development.

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Un fao sofa 2010 gender and value chains coles mitchell 15 sept 09

  1. 1. Gender and value chains<br />Presentation of paper prepared for UN FAO SOFA 2010<br />Christopher Coles and Jonathan Mitchell<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Brief introduction to VC analysis and development and the study<br />What we know about gender and value chains: desk and action research<br />How we intervene: value chain development<br />The implications for policy and practice<br />Summary<br />
  3. 3. Value chain analysis – the diagnosis<br />Is holistic<br />chain wide approach to ID of action points – from design & input supply to consumption<br />deals with everyone – men and women<br />Looks for win-win – interventions need to be economically viable to be sustainable<br />
  4. 4. Value chain development – the solution<br />Applies ‘upgrading strategies’ to actors<br />Process and product: improving efficiency and quality<br />Functional: who does what<br />Horizontal coordination: within functional ‘nodes’<br />Vertical coordination: between nodes<br />Chain: moving to a new chain using existing skills<br />Enabling environment<br />Policy, law, institutions, support organisations<br />Projects tend to be short-term, narrowly focussed and prioritise ‘quick wins’<br />
  5. 5. What determines how and where men and women participate in VCs?<br />Access to factors of production<br /><ul><li>Which functions? Women in lower margin activities/VCs, including secondary roles
  6. 6. Role of risk
  7. 7. Male appropriation
  8. 8. Women involved throughout chains, often beyond production (e.g. fisheries)
  9. 9. Which VCs?
  10. 10. Taboos & traditional norms – culture
  11. 11. perceived value e.g. local vs. export
  12. 12. Contextual differences (within a VC)</li></li></ul><li>Value chain development 2<br />Practitioners tend to be agriculturalists who:<br />Feel uncomfortable working beyond the production level<br />Often mistrust the private sector<br />
  13. 13. Study background<br />VCA&D only recently applied to development issues<br />Evidence for PEG outcomes of interventions anecdotal and descriptive<br />Systematic literature review: target group, intervention, outcomes<br />Seven action research studies in Africa and southern Asia:<br />‘What effects does applying upgrading strategies in value chains have on gender outcomes for the poor in lagging regions of developing countries?’<br /> 2 staple food crops, 1 citrus, 2 fisheries, 2 forest products<br />
  14. 14. Results: An emerging framework<br />The question of gender in value chains is posed as the question of economic empowerment of women (Pro Agri focus group)<br />Two ‘axes’ of determining factors<br />Household (individual) and chain level factors (horizontal structures in between)<br />Factors affecting participation in versus gains from economic activities in value chains<br />
  15. 15. What determines gains by men and women participating in value chains? <br />Financial gains<br />Income control and distribution: participation vs. returns; male appropriation<br />Relationship with access to factors of production <br />Non-financial gains – e.g.<br />Training and education differentials<br />Land, property and business ownership and membership of institutions<br />
  16. 16. Approaches to upgrading and gender<br />Horizontal and vertical coordination<br />Chain management - increase representation of women in groups and institutions (sometimes 100% women)<br />Strengthen horizontal and vertical linkages where women participate<br />Product, process & functional upgrading – on nodes where women have a significant presence, usually production<br />The enabling environment<br />Gender-specific codes of conduct<br />Non-gender-specific laws, regulations and policies that affect nodes in which women participate significantly<br />Service provision to women<br />
  17. 17. Upgrading outcomes<br />Planting women in committees can increase influence on chain management but doesn’t address underlying issues<br />Women’s groups can increase power at HH and chain levels but sometimes even damaging if analysis poor and men excluded<br />Vertical coordination can stabilise markets and reduce risk and vulnerability but is exclusive (not gender specific) <br />
  18. 18. Upgrading outcomes 2<br />Increases in income through process, product & functional upgrading<br />but if intrahousehold dynamics disregarded women may not benefit (participation vs gains)<br />Enabling environment<br />imposed codes limited in effectiveness if underlying issues are not addressed<br />Addressing policy bottlenecks highly effective (not gender specific)<br />
  19. 19. Current approach to gender issues in VCs: summary<br />Muddled thinking<br />Often misses underlying issues<br />Doesn’t discriminate among the ‘axes’; are issues at household or chain levels? Are they issues relating to participation or gains?<br />Lack of participation in primary functions interpreted as ‘no issue’<br />Resorting to ‘defaults’ without robust analysis<br />
  20. 20. Still a gap:<br />Service vs product chains<br />Private vs public sector chains<br />Generally little robust gender analysis of process (action research)<br />Anecdotal studies wouldn’t make it into a meta analysis!<br />We don’t get it yet<br />
  21. 21. Policy implications<br />Practitioners need our support in understanding VC gender issues and how to tackle them<br />What are the underlying issues? May need to intervene at multiple levels/action points, some outside scope of VCD project itself<br />Where in the chain are the participation/gain issues and what are the root causes?<br />Levels: individual, group, VC, cultural and policy<br />environment, service provision and support environment<br />Avoid ‘default’ generic interventions – tailor support to well analysed & understood root problems<br />
  22. 22. Summary<br />Gender issues in value chains are viewed as economic empowerment of women;<br />They are manifested along a continuum between household and chain levels;<br />They pertain to participation and gain;<br />There is a gap in understanding and (default) interventions can miss the point, be ineffective, or even cause harm;<br />Practitioners require support with analysis and intervention, particularly with addressing the wider cultural factors<br />
  23. 23. Thank you<br />

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