Transcript of "Bible you hold in your hand articles"
The Reliability of the Bible Texts “Given by Inspiration” — theopneustos, Context Revisited Some Discussion of Copies and Translations February 19 2012 7 and 8 Charles e Whisnant, TeacherGod specifically endorsed copies of the Scriptures. Deuteronomy 17:18-19:A copy, unlike the inscripturated original, can contain errors. This is because God never saidthat ‖immediate inspiration‖ by the Spirit (if you didn‘t read the last post for definitions, stop now andgo read it!) applied to anything except the original writing of the Scriptures. II Peter 1:21 tells us thatthe Holy Spirit moved holy men to write the Scriptures. It says nothing about copies. We‘ll look later atthe fact that God preserves His Word, so the fact that some copyists made mistakes isn‘t a problem forus.The only thing the original autographs had which a copy doesn‟t have is a divine guarantee of100% accuracy. Copies have never had that guarantee — but when they are accurate, they havejust as much value as the original autograph.God specifically endorsed the translation of the Scriptures in Romans 16:25-27.We return briefly to II Peter 1, including verse 19 this time:Some key points about this passage:Thus, theologians have always said that ―immediate inspiration‖ (some have used the term―inscripturation‖) is an action of God (described in II Peter 1:21) which He carried out only in the givingof the original autographs, and it applies neither to copies or translations. This is what Christians have 1always believed. The Bible says nothing of any ―re-inspiration‖, a second direct act by God of Pageimmediate inspiration, in copies or translations.
Revisiting the Context of theopneustosTimothy would have read II Timothy chapters three and four without chapter and verse breaks. I‘ll givethe last two verses of chapter three and the first two of chapter four the way he would have read them:The main flow of the passage could be boiled down like this: ―All Scripture is theopneustos and profitable, so I charge you to preach it.‖ The Word that Timothy is to preach is the Word that is theopneustos and profitable, The second half of 4:2 matches the second half of 3:16 in meaning and even somewhat in wording (both verses refer to ―doctrine‖ and ―reproof‖).A Logical Progression Based on II Timothy 3:16-4:2How can Timothy‟s translation-in-hand be theopneustos if translations are not “immediatelyinspired?” There is only one answer: theopneustos is not the same as what theologians have called ―immediate inspiration.‖ It is not primarily talking about the moving of the Holy Spirit described in II Peter 1:21. It is, rather, focused on what came into existence as a result of that moving – the divine quality or nature of the Scriptures. The context virtually demands that we accept what the connotations also told us. This word, which our translators rendered “given by inspiration of God,” is referring not primarily to the divine origin of the Scriptures, but rather to the current divine nature of the Scriptures which flowed out of that divine origin.The God who breathed the Scriptures into existence also breathed life into them, and they became aliving and life-giving Book. That living divine quality lives on even in an accurate translation, which iswhy, returning to Romans 16:25-27, a translation is able to (as Scripture) make the Gospel known to thenations that they might have eternal life.Once we recognize what both the connotations and the context of 3:16-4:2 are telling us, thattheopneustos is talking primarily about the living divine nature of the Scriptures, other things fall intoplace.When Paul wrote that the Scriptures are theopneustos (―given by inspiration of God‖), he was talkingabout ―That Book in Your Hand,‖ about what it is today because of the way God made it. God breathedlife into that Book, and thus it is and remains forever a living and life-giving Book. The divine qualitiesthat He breathed into it live on even in that translation in your hand, just as they lived in Timothy‘sGreek translation. It still lives and gives life today, just as it always has. 2 Page
Is there a way to scientifically reconstruct the original biblical text? And if so, what would the hibachi ramifications of such an achievement be?These were two of the central questions that arose at the ninth meeting of Bar-Ilan University‘s Nitzozotstudy series last week, which brought together experts from the fields of computer sciences, Bible studyand Halacha for a discussion on the origins and fluctuations of the biblical text.According to the post-Talmudic tractate Sofrim, there were three Torah scrolls in the Temple court, eachslightly inconsistent with the others. Since there was no way to determine which text was the original,the halachic principle of ―ruling by the majority‖ was applied: The version that appeared in two out ofthe three scrolls was accepted as the standard text, even if the minority text, in theory, might have bornethe original version.Over the centuries, generations of scribes copied the Torah scrolls, and scribal errors inevitably crept in.To safeguard the holy text, the mesora, the oral tradition that noted the correct spellings of words,paragraph inclinations and cantillation notes, was also passed on within various families.In the first half of the 10th century, a prominent member of a mesoratic family in Tiberias, Aharon Ben-Asher, created a written book version of the biblical text, a codex that, unlike the Torah scrolls, couldalso contain the accompanying mesora notes Ben-Asher inscribed. As it was a ―crowning glory‖ ofbiblical texts, it became known as a Keter (crown), and after it ended up in Syria, the Aleppo Codex, orthe Keter Aram Soba.The biblical text was based on a cross-reference of the contemporary versions available to Ben-Asher,probably including his own memorized version, to create the most accurate corpus possible. At the sametime, it was not able to reconstruct the original Second Temple-era version. The Keter received a majorstamp of approval from Maimonides, who in the 12th century declared it to be the codex he trustedabove all others.Nature tends to be cyclic, as evident in the lunar and solar systems, or the transcription of the soundwaves in a plot of speech over a few thousandths of a second, or the measurement of the volume of iceon a glacier over thousands of years. And when a cycle is identified, yet for some reason its data isincomplete, the lapses within it can sometimes be filled in based on the larger picture of the cycles.Based on the principle of cycles in nature, Rabbi Shabtai Rappaport, head of the Beit Midrash at Bar-Ilan‘s Ludwig and Erica Jesselson Institute for Advanced Torah Studies and the organizer of theNitzozot series, asked the internationally renowned computer science professor and dean of the Collegeof Exact Sciences at Bar-Ilan, Amihood Amir, who is an expert on reconstructing data, whether the 3same scientific principle of correcting cycles might be applied to the biblical text, which contains scribal Pageerrors created over the generations during the cycles of copying and recopying of Torah scrolls.
Amir‘s lecture at Nitzozot last week presented the ways to reconstruct an original cycle that engenderedfollowing cycles, which could be applicable when the mistakes in the data used to reconstruct the cyclefell under certain conditions, such as in the case of bible copying.As the biblical text comes with a codex, Prof. Yosef Ofer of Bar-Ilan‘s bible department, whoseexpertise also covers the mesora, spoke of the parallels between digital algorithms created to preventtextual mistakes and those created and used by the mesora-holders to ensure the ongoing accuracy of theTorah.In his address at the conference, Rappaport dwelled on the significance that the Torah text‘s originalitybears. The version we use today, he said, is not necessarily what Moses received at Sinai, but it is whatGod wants us to use, as it represents the best available version.However, Rappaport stressed that the age-old halachic principle of ruling by the majority, such as in thecase of alternating Torah versions, was not a solution based on statistical probabilities, but rather oneapplied only when there was no other way to resolve a specific quandary.A definitive version of the Torah, scientifically reconstructed back to the ur-text the People of Israelreceived at Mount Sinai, may provide groundbreaking insights and shed new light on the most sanctifiedand widely disseminated and interpreted text in history.―This is a fascinating and important project waiting to be undertaken,‖ Rappaport told The JerusalemPost. ―Now that the theoretical infrastructure to attempt to reconstruct the original text exists, the waysto apply it in order to achieve such an end will be examined.‖http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?ID=176056 4 Page
Why Didnt God Preserve the Original Writings of the Men Who Penned the Bible? There are thousands of partial and complete handwritten manuscriptcopies of the Old and New Testament. These manuscripts are on display today in places like theSmithsonian Institute, the Cambridge University Library, the British Library, etc. These manuscriptshave allowed scholars to verify that the Bible we have today is the same Bible the early churchpossessed 2,000 years ago.To our knowledge though, none of the autographs (the originals) of any of the sixty six books of theBible actually survive. Someone asked me a while back, "Why didnt God preserve the originals? Ifwe had the originals, then we could know for certain that the Bible hasnt undergonecorruption!" Could we know for certain? I dont believe we could. I believe that God has purposelyallowed the originals to disappear so that we could actually be more certain that we have a trustworthycopy of the Bible. What are you saying Charlie? Hear me out on this.Lets imagine the originals were allowed to survive. Lets imagine that they were in someonespossession back in the second century or third century. Well call him Joe the Scribe. Joe could havechanged them! And who would know? Perhaps nobody. But if the original is quickly copied numeroustimes and these copies are then spread all over the ancient world, and then the original is lost ordestroyed, theres no way that Joe could alter the Word of God. Someone might try to sneak an errorinto a manuscript copy, but the thousands of other copies in circulation would quickly allow the churchto cross-check and compare them with one another. The result of the cross-checking? The variants(small slips of the pen, grammatical errors) that anybody tried had tried to sneak into their manuscript 5would be spotted and the church could come away with great confidence that they have a highly Pageaccurate copy of the original.
I believe that God, in His perfect wisdom and foresight, knew the danger of leaving the originals intactand in the possession of any one person or group. Ironically, by allowing the originals to disappear, HisWord has actually probably been better preserved.http://1peter315.blogspot.com/2006/01/why-didnt-god-preserve-original.htmlhttps://www.biblosfoundation.org/KJB_Section/Bibles.aspx Bible translations before 1611 6 Page
These are early handwritten leaves on paper of the Gospel of Luke in the Coptic language. Paper took the place of parchment (skins of cows and mature sheep and goats) and vellum (skins of lambs andgoats - often the fetus) in the 14th and 15th centuries. It was much cheaper and quite durable since it was made with a cloth base.* 7 Page
The Reliability of the Bible Texts Doesnt the Bible have a lot of mistakes?One of the key questions people are asking today is whether the Bible is reliable. What they usuallymean is whether the Bible texts themselves are reliable.Higher and Lower CriticismThis question has arisen only in the last few hundred years. Higher criticism has questioned theauthenticity of the history as the Bible presents itself. Higher critics, for example, would deny thehistoricity of Israels Exodus out of Egypt. With such presumptions, they strongly suggest that the Bookof Exodus was just a story written later on to provide the people of Israel a national identity. When theaverage person hears these theories stated as facts, many are dissilusioned with the Bible.These questions ultimately lead us back to questions about the Biblical texts themselves. Lowercriticism evaluates which Bible texts are most accurate. They ask, "Which Bible manuscripts should beused for the basis of the modern translation Bible versions?" Having such a great number ofmanuscripts, it is sometimes difficult to know which one is most accurate. The issue is even much morecomplicated. If the majority of manuscripts support one phrase, then the issue seems clear. But if themanuscripts weigh evenly between say using, "Jesus Christ," or just "Jesus," which should be used? thisstudy gets very intensive.These questions have undermined many a persons trust in the Bible and in God. Many professors majorgoal is to pass on these doubts. They should quit teaching but their list of degrees grants them a pseudo-authority.If you wonder about the trustworthiness of the Bible, then you need to better understand why peoplewho claim to be Christians and scholars dont believe in the Bible. In order to do this we have introducedthese two fields of Higher and Lower Criticism and drawn a few conclusions. Higher Criticism Lower Criticism Detecting the genuineness of a Bible teaching. Detecting the accuracy of a Biblical text.Higher criticism started in the late 1700s. They Lower criticism also developed from an unbelief inappointed themselves to evlauate the contents of the inspired scriptures. They evaluated the Biblethe Bible. Unfortunately, as a whole they did not just as any other book.believe the Bible to be true. We need to be very careful of the assumptions ofThey based their interpretations on a those who do these critical studies. Westcott andpresupposition that the Bible is not divinely Hort in the 1800s were scholars indeed, but with ainspired and that a conglomerate of unknown bias. They did not believe in Gods authoritativeauthors and editors assembled and modified the Word.Bible as they desired. Many others of the Liberalism persuasion follow 9These Higher Criticism studies has been a large their trail and do not believe in the inspiration of Pagewaste of time. Their bias against the Bible has so
largely shaped their conclusions that their studies the original autographs (see inspiration).are not worthy reading. We have spoken of their bias. Is there any value inFor example, many of them would deny a literal their methodology then? We think so.Exodus. They think that the Exodus story is merelysomething the Israelites later created for a national The methodology needs to be separated from theirstory. They have no basis for their thinking. They assumptions. They thought that only a few majorknow it is not true and therefore interpret the Bible texts were old and and so based their conclusionsin light of their presuppositions. on only a few manuscipts. They claimed to be ecletic but in fact were rather prejudiced.Many commentaries (all expensive) spend a largeamount of their pages debating such theories. Not Today we have others who do hold to the veracitymany of these supposed Bible scholars really take of the scriptures and fine-tune the research onthe Bible for face value. determining the original text.If you are shaken by their statements, just read We need to remember that most of the text is notbetween the lines and see what they base their in questin. We are not recovering a lost text. Thetheories on. You will see it is all conjecture and biblical text is in the majority of cases clear andthat their beliefs will be adjusted in another ten or unquestioned.twenty years by someone elses theories. It isinteresting to read older commentaries and see Todays studies focus on seeing if we can throughhow ridiculus some of their conclusions are in light research detect which variance was actually theof modern discoveries.1 original.Bottom Line Bottom LineWe can accept the Bible as it presents itself. Noah In fact, the major result of the Lower Critics hasreally existed along with the ark. Moses really did produced a better understanding of the reliability ofserve in the Egyptian court. There was language the Biblical texts.back then. Jericho really had walls that fell inwardand we have proof that it did. We acknowledge that there are many variants in the thousands of manuscripts, but they are minor andMore on Liberals inconsequential to the main meaning of the few passages they influence. These studies stand as proof that the original documents are not far from what we have in todays copies.Higher CriticismIt is a shame that so many commentaries and seminary classes spend countless pages and lecturesexplaining these hypotheses which are almost always rooted in unbelief. Remember it is theirpresuppositions that destroy their studies. Unless they can accept the scriptures as Jesus did, then webetter not listen to these false teachers. 10 Page
What about Biblical Archaeology?One would think that we only need to turn to theBiblical archaeological magazines to seewhether the Biblical events are historical. Thiswould seem to be most logical step to take, butthe major archaeological magazines and projectsare operated by those influenced by highercriticism. They distort the facts according totheir persuasions. They would not evencontemplate thinking there was a real Red Seacrossing by the Israelites. This distorts theirresearch discoveries.Fortunately, the web is enabling other smaller-scale Biblical archaeologists who believe in theBible to publish their research. The facts arethere. Time is on the side of truth. As time goeson, more and more facts provide clear evidenceof the veracity of the Biblical account.The Jesus Seminar, for example, outright reject Jesus perspective of the scriptures.They trash what they want to avoid. They put themselves as greater judges than Jesus Himself. I muchrather have Jesus perspective of the scriptures than what these so-called scholars teach. Jesus said,Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish, but to fulfill. Fortruly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass awayfrom the Law, until all is accomplished. (Matthew 5:17-18)Note how Jesus clearly stated that even the smallest part of a letter of His Word is important!Lower Criticism: A Study on the Biblical ManuscriptsWe will provide an overview of the original Bible manuscripts to help you better understand the issuesat stake.The Background of the Biblical ManuscriptsWe do not possess the original Bible books, sometimes calledtexts or autographs. We do, however, have many thousands ofBiblical manuscripts (5,500+) which are copies of the originals. Itis best to think of our manuscripts as descendants of the originals.Each generation hand-copied their own. The originals becamedamaged or worn and were destroyed. 11These manuscripts have their own family trees. The texts would Pagebe copied and then distributed to different centers so they could
read them aloud to their own congregations. Each Christian center then would have its own family tree.Once a copy got to the center, then the whole document along with its mistakes would be repeated asscribes copied that document. The variances are minimal. Their own copy would resemble the original.The goal in Lower Criticism is to find the original father text, the autograph by comparing the differentfamilies of texts.One person wrote asking,I was however shocked to see that you too support the idea that the contents of the Bible should bedetermined by scientists who research the "most probable text" of the Bible in your article. Textualcritique is an interesting subject, but cannot be applied to an infallible and holy book.I replied something like below,Textual criticism is not applied to the autographs, the originals, but upon the copies of the copies of theautographs. We in no way accept inferiority on the originals. We do, however, recognize as man copiedthem through the ages that there were minor changes (not making doctrinal differences for the mostpart), mostly consisting of spelling or copying mistakes.For example, I have access to different versions of a Bible verse in Greek. I am not trying to question theoriginal or think I have a better idea of what God should say (man does this far too often)! Our goal isto discover what God did say! Textual criticism is all about identifying the original and living by it.The Old Testament TextsThe Old Testament faced an entirely different situation than the New Testament. They had one chiefworship center.The scribes would specialize in copying the scriptures when they were worn. The scribes wereextraordinarily careful in copying these texts. They would count the letters going each way. If theyfound one mistake, they would destroy that page. They did make occasional mistakes like the reversingof letters, but they did not dare tamper with Gods Word. They preserved the integrity of the holy textsby burning the old ones with defects.What happened as a result was that our latest copies (manuscripts) of the Old Testament scriptures weremore than one or two thousand years from the time that they were written in some cases. People startedwondering whether they were true.Until recently, our most ancient copies (manuscripts) of the Old Testament were from the 10th century.They could of course check its message with the Septuagint which was written several hundred yearsbefore Christ. This was the Greek translation of the Old Testament that was in use in Jesus day.More recent archaeological findings, however, have swept this suspicion into the Mediterranean. Thediscovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the 1940s have shown that the Hebrew (Masoretic) text wasaccurately preserved. These scrolls were written 100 to 200 years before Jesus time. So passages thatclearly describe Jesus such as Isaiah 53 could no longer be said to be inserted after Jesus time. 12 Page
The New Testament TextsThe New Testament manuscripts on the other hand are numerous. These 5,500 plus manuscripts datefrom the 2nd century. Those who ask whether the originals had ever existed can find their answer here.They certainly did. Only the genuine text could have spawned so many copies through the years.Some people seem to question the authenticity of the orginals when there are so many differentmanuscripts with slight variations. This is a shame. The opposite is true. The agreement of the scripturesprove the existence of the original documents. The number of manuscripts for the New Testamentscriptures is far greater than any other ancient text. It is through these variants (differences on words orspellings used), we can trace back and discover what the original text had said.Do we find that the texts are reliable? Definitely.Although one may hear of thousands of variants or errors, we must keep in mind that they count thesame error in each of the 5,000 manuscripts. After careful examination, they have found that only 40lines (400 words) of the 20,000 lines are in question. We can be sure that the New Testament is 99%pure. The Iliad by contrast has 5% corrupted text. There is no ancient text that is more reliable than theNew Testament.What is more helpful, is that we know exactlywhat the differences of the Greek text are. Atthe foot of each page of the Greek text, one cansee the footnotes which document whichvariants that particular verse might have. Theynote which manuscripts support which variant.In this way Lower Criticism has dispelled fearsof an unreliable text. One main advantage ofstudying Greek is to be able to read thesefootnotes! English translations mention onlythe most significant variants.Why all the confusion?Many people do not understand how the NewTestament books were written, copied and distributed. It is not simply as we might think.There was no instant New Testament Bible. Each New Testament book was written separately (exceptperhaps Luke and Acts) and sent to different people and places. These places had no faxes, computers ortelephones. Paper was not yet popularized or available. Reading the scriptures was popular in churches.Copies were not easily made or preserved. The originals would be passed around from church to church.And when this letter is read among you, have it also read in the church of the Laodiceans; and you, foryour part read my letter that is coming from Laodicea." (Colossians 4:16)As time went on, the 27 different documents (Bible books) would travel about and end up in differentChristian churches or Christian centers. Each main Christian center would begin their own collection of 13these NT scriptures (ie. manuscripts) and make their own copies for those in their jurisdiction. Thosewho made these copies were scribes. Remember, writing was a special skill back in those days. Page
These centers then unconsciously would develop their own family of manuscripts through their copyingefforts. There would be slight variations in these manuscripts, nothing significant. Remember, only 40lines of 20,000 are in question. Alexandria in Egypt had the driest climate and most well-preservedscriptures. The Western texts were centered in Rome. Later on Byzantine became the empires capitaland a major center for Christianity. The picture above shows the five main Christian centers in 600 A.D.In summary, we do not need to be concerned whether we are missing anything when we read ourtranslations. The major differences such as whether there is a long ending on the Gospel of Mark, John 7:53-8:11 or 1 John 5:7 is usually footnoted in good translations. Nothing is of great importance in these sectionsthat we cannot find elsewhere in the Bible.The main difference comes down to whether we actually love, trust and obey Gods Word. We do not needto be scholars to do this. The more confidence we have in Gods Word for our own lives, the more we cangrow as Christians. Where seeds of doubt have been sowed in our hearts, we need to weed them out. Dontbe afraid to search out the truth; only be afraid of believing falsehood! Satan seeks to create mistrust whenthere needs to be none. God speaks and expects us to listen!Knowing about Gods Word and its reliability is one important matter, but one also needs to know howto meet God in the scriptures. Knowing about Gods Word and its reliability is one important matter, but one also needs to know how to meet God in the scriptures.Go => Next Other Articles on the Origin of the Bible Series1. How is the Bible different today from before? The Transformation of the Bible2. How did the Bible come into being? The Canonization of the Bible3. Why arent other books part of the Bible? The Extent of the Bible4. How is the Bible different from other books? The Inspiration of the Bible5. Doesnt the Bible have a lot of mistakes? The Reliability of the Bible6. Is the Bible really relevant to my life? The Relevance of the Bible7. What Bible version should I use? Im confused. The Versions of the Bible8. Why do some people say that I must use the KJV? Conspiracy in the translations? 14 http://www.foundationsforfreedom.net/Topics/Bible/Bible_Reliability.html Page
THE HOLY BIBLEList of contents:List of contents:I. Introduction to the books of the BibleII. The Old Testament (the Torah, etc)III. The New Testament (the Injil, etc)IV. The authenticity of the Biblical text1. The authenticity of the Biblical text according to the Quran2. The authenticity of the Biblical text according to early Islamic traditionV. Bible prophecyVI. Biblical archeologyVII. Doctrines to which the Holy Bible is strongly opposed:1. The doctrine of abrogation of divine revelation is unbiblical2. The doctrine of satanic inspiration is unbiblicalVIII. ConclusionI. INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOKS OF THE BIBLE(return to list of contents)The Holy Bible is the most widespread book in the world. It is translated into more than 1600 languagesand dialects used in the world. The Holy Bible is not one book, but many. It consists of two majordivisions: the Old Testament (OT), and the New Testament (NT). The Old Testament consists of 39books and the deuterocanonical/apocryphal books. The New Testament consists of 27 books. The 39books of the Old Testament constitute the Hebrew Bible of the Jews. Jews are still waiting for thecoming of the Messiah (the Christ). They rejected Him in His first advent, and therefore, they do notrecognize the books of the New Testament. The Old Testament was written centuries before the time ofChrist. The New Testament was written in the first century, after the resurrection of Christ, by inspiredsaintly apostles and disciples of Christ. The books of the Holy Bible were written in three continents:Asia, Africa, and Europe over a period of about 1500 years by some 44 inspired prophets and apostleswho lived virtuous godly lives centuries apart in different locations. These writers were of variedbackgrounds. Some of them were kings and priests. Others were physicians, farmers, shepherds,fishermen, and tentmakers. Yet, all the books of the Bible are consistent and harmonious with one 15another, and follow the same basic themes, as they were inspired by the same eternal Holy Spirit of theliving God who has no beginning and no end. Despite the diversity of the languages, cultures, times, Pageages and locations of the writers of the biblical books, the Holy Bible exhibits remarkable unity in its
message, purpose and theology. This is because the primary author of the Holy Bible is the eternal livingGod who inspired all the human writers who in turn reflected their varying personalities and styles in thesacred writings as they delivered the inspired message of God. This, in itself, is a sufficient proof of thedivine inspiration and origin of the Holy Bible: “For prophecy never came by the will of man, butholy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter 1: 21); “All Scripture isgiven by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, forinstruction in righteousness” (2 Timothy 3: 16).Unlike the Qur‟an, the Bible is not the work of one man in a few years (22 years) as explainedabove.The Holy Bible constitutes an integrated coherent whole centered in the person of Christ. Christ is thecentral theme of the Holy Bible. Each of its books has its own distinctive message in the whole. TheHoly Bible is a progressive unfolding and revealing of truth. It tells the historical story of the salvationof humankind according to the divine plan. It begins with the creation of the world, and ends with theconsummation of the history of humankind and the recreation of the world after a prolonged spiritualbattle between good and evil. The Bible message is delivered in a variety of literary forms. Somesections are historic narration of events. Others provide the speech of God in the first person usingphrases like, ―Thus says the Lord‖ or ―The word of the Lord came to me‖ (Isaiah 1: 10, 18; 6: 8;Jeremiah 1:4; Ezekiel 1: 3; etc). The Old Testament (Torah) abounds in persons and events prefiguringChrist, and signs and symbols of his work, and prophecies of his first and second advents. The centralmessage of the Old Testament is the promise of, and preparation for, the coming of the Messiah (theChrist) who would provide the salvation of humankind from sin and spiritual death (separation fromGod). The New Testament is the fulfillment of the Old Testaments prophetic message of the salvationof humankind from the bondage of sin and corruption through Jesus Christ. Therefore, the Holy Bible inits entirety, with all its divisions and books, is a fully integrated unity.Many critics tried to find errors and contradictions in the Holy Bible but failed. The following worksrespond to their allegations:1. N. Geisler and T. Howe, When Critics Ask (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1992).2. W. Kaiser Jr., P. Davids, F. Bruce and M. Brauch, Hard Sayings of the Bible (Downers Grove, IL:InterVarsity Press, 1996).3. G. Archer, Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1982).In fact, some of the best legal minds in history have scrutinized the Holy Bible. The New Testament wascarefully examined by legal experts such as Simon Greenleaf of Harvard who came to the conclusionthat: ―copies which had been as universally received and acted upon as the four Gospels, would havebeen received in evidence in any court of justice, without the slightest hesitation‖ (N. Geisler and A.Saleeb, Answering Islam [Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2002], p. 231).The Holy Bible is a book for all peoples and all diverse backgrounds in all times--from the simple-minded person to the philosopher. Readers enjoy the aesthetic beauty of the Holy Bible, its artisticexcellence, and the orderliness of its historical narration. One of the fictional characters of the novel ofBrothers Karamazov by the famous Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky declared: ―What a book theBible is, what a miracle, what strength is given with it to a man. It is like a mould cast of the world and 16man and human nature, everything is there, and a law for everything for all the ages. And whatmysteries are solved and revealed.‖ Page
II. THE OLD TESTAMENT (THE TORAH, etc)(return to list of contents)The Old Testament covers events spanning thousands of years from creation to about 400 BC. Theoriginal language of the Old Testament books is Hebrew, with the exception of parts of the books ofDaniel, Ezra and Jeremiah, which were written in Aramaic. The Jewish Torah comprises the first fivebooks of the Old Testament. It covers a period of thousands of years extending from creation to thedeath of Moses. Excluding the deuterocanonical/apocryphal books, the first 17 books of the OldTestament, from the book of Genesis to the book of Esther, are classified as history, while the last 17books, form the book of Isaiah to the book of Malachi, constitute the prophetic section of the OldTestament. Wedged in between are the five books usually classified as poetical, from the book of Job tothe book of Song of Solomon. The historical books narrate the history of God‘s dealings with humanityin a chronological sequence to bring forth the Christ, the savior of humankind. The poetical booksexplore basic questions of human life, such as: the suffering of good people, worship, wisdom, and love.The prophetical books include prophecies, teachings, warnings, and exhortations to repentance.III. THE NEW TESTAMENT (THE INJIL, etc)Testament books is the ancient common Greek language of Jesus’ time, which waswidely used in the Roman empire of the first century AD, where the early Christiansevangelized. This language had been highly developed and completed at least twocenturies before the time of Jesus. Jesus himself did not write any material. Hehimself is the living Word of God. The first four books of the New Testament are theGospels (Injil) written by two apostles (Matthew and John) and two Christiandisciples (Mark and Luke). They record various aspects of the life, teachings, andwork of Christ in His first advent on earth. They were written in different parts ofthe world—the Gospel of Mark in Rome; the Gospel of Matthew in Antioch; theGospel of Luke in Greece; and the Gospel of John in Asia Minor. However, theycomplement and corroborate one another. The last book in the New Testament isthe Revelation of John. It was written by the Apostle John at about 90 AD, about fivecenturies before Muhammad’s time. It has prophecies about the coming of the falseprophet and the anti-Christ before the second coming of Christ to earth in glory andjudgment at the end of this age. The book of Acts describes the historicalpropagation of the Gospel (good news) of Christ, and the formation and theexpansion of the early Church in various parts of the world in the thirty yearsfollowing the ascension of Christ.The rest of the New Testament books are twenty-one epistles written by the apostles and disciples ofChrist to various ancient churches and persons in different parts of the world to explain the Gospelmessage, and to provide further instruction in the Christian faith addressing doctrinal and moral issues, 17and Church order. The Epistles fall into two main groups: those written by St. Paul, the apostle, andthose attributed to other writers. Fourteen Epistles were written by the apostle Paul. He wrote to Pageparticular churches (the churches of Rome, Corinth, Galatia, Ephesus, Philippi, Colossi, Thessalonica,
etc.), and to individuals (Philemon, Timothy, and Titus). The other seven Epistles (James; 1 and 2 Peter;1, 2 and 3 John; and Jude) are known as the Catholic (universal) or general Epistles. They were writtento groups of churches or to the universal Church in its entirety. For instance, the Epistle of James waswritten to the Jewish converts throughout the ancient world. The Epistle of First Peter was written to theJewish converts of Asia Minor. Although the Epistles of second and third John were addressed topersons, they both compliment the Epistle of first John, and are, therefore, considered general Epistles.All the books of the New Testament were written under the guidance of the Holy Spirit between about50 and 90 A.D. by either eyewitnesses, or those who related the accounts of eyewitnesses of the actualevents of the life, teachings and miracles of Jesus: “For we did not follow cunningly devised fableswhen we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but wereeyewitnesses of His majesty” (2 Peter 1: 16). The closeness of the recorded accounts of the NewTestament to the actual events certifies the accuracy of what is recorded, because the New Testamentbooks were being circulated among many eyewitnesses of those events that could confirm or deny theaccuracy of those accounts, as the apostle Peter addressed the Jews saying: “Men of Israel, hear thesewords: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs whichGod did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know” (Acts 2: 22). In fact, some ofthose eyewitnesses were hostile to Christianity and would be only too happy to expose and challengeany inaccuracies in the New Testament books had said accuracies existed.IV. AUTHENTICITY OF THE BIBLICAL TEXTThe traditional standard text of the Old Testament (the Masoretic text) has beentransmitted across the centuries with remarkable accuracy. The most ancient extanthand written scrolls and fragments of the Old Testament books in Hebrew date backto the second century BC, nearly 800 years before Muhammad’s time. These werediscovered accidentally by a shepherd boy in 1947 in caves of rocky ravines inPalestine overlooking the north shore of the Dead Sea. That is why they came to beknown as the Dead Sea scrolls. They are essentially the same as the Old Testamentbooks that we have today. They confirm their accuracy. You can see them on exhibitin the Shrine of the Book museum in Jerusalem. The oldest extant Greek translationof the Old Testament (the Torah) is the Septuagint (LXX) which dates back to thethird century BC.The most ancient extant fragments of the New Testament books in Greek date back to the late firstcentury AD, nearly 500 years before Muhammad‘s time. The Chester Beatty Papyri (late first centurythrough third century AD) contain most of the New Testament. Again they are essentially the same aswhat we have today in the New Testament books. There are more than six thousand extant manuscriptcopies of the Greek New Testament or portions thereof. In fact, there is more manuscript support for theNew Testament than for any other document from antiquity. In addition, the extant ancient translationsof the New Testament books to Syriac and Coptic languages of the second century AD attest theaccuracy of the New Testament text that we have today. Furthermore, more than 32,000 quotations fromthe New Testament by the early Church fathers of the first three centuries of Christianity before 325 ADare in full agreement with the text of the New Testament books. Moreover, the 16-volume work of Dean 18Burgen in the British Museum contains 86,489 independent quotations of the New Testament booksfrom the writings of the Church leaders of the period 325-570 AD (Brother Mark, A Perfect Qur’an, Page
1983, p. 348). This scholar arrived at the conclusion that the entire New Testament could be assembledfrom these quotations.The oldest and the most complete texts of both the Old and New Testaments in Greek are: CodexVaticanus (early fourth century AD, available in the Vatican library); Codex Sinaiticus (mid-fourthcentury AD, available in the British museum); Codex Alexandrinus (fifth century AD, available in theBritish museum); and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (fifth century AD, available in the BibliothequeNationale of Paris, France). In addition, evidence from archaeological discoveries substantiates thehistoricity, culture, life-style, and geography to which the Holy Bible refers. As you know, Muhammaddied in 632 AD, centuries after all the books of the Holy Bible were written. Those that allege that theHoly Bible was altered and corrupted in order to justify the many contradictions between the Qur‘an andthe Holy Bible cannot prove their claim, because, as discussed above, all the ancient manuscripts andfragments of both the Old Testament (the Torah) and the New Testament (the Injil), which predate thetime of Muhammad and the Qur‘an by several centuries, are consistent both with each other and with thebiblical text that we have today.It is a practical impossibility to alter in the same way the thousands of copies of the Old Testament (theTorah) and the New Testament (the Injil) that were in circulation throughout the world before the timeof Muhammad. Thus, it is concluded that the claim that the Holy Bible was changed, for reasonsrelated to Muhammad, is definitely false because it has no foundation in historical facts whichrefute that claim. It does not withstand the conclusive scientific evidence that is available for all toexamine and be convinced. 1. The Authenticity of the Biblical Text According to the Qur‟anIt is important that those who believe in the Qur‘an know the position of the Qur‘an pertaining to theauthenticity of the biblical text of the Old Testament (the Torah) and the New Testament (the Injil). TheQur‘an provides ample testimony on the textual integrity of both the Old Testament (the Torah) and theNew Testament (the Injil), and holds them in great reverence and esteem. The testimony of the Qur‘anconfirms that both the Old Testament (the Torah) and the New Testament (the Injil) are not textuallyaltered or corrupted, and that they are not abrogated. In fact, the Qur‘an states that: ―… There is nochanging the word of God…‖ (al-An‘am 6: 34; Yunus 10: 64); ―We have, without doubt, sent downthe Message; and We will assuredly guard it‖ (al-Hijr 15: 9); ―Such was the law of God among thosebefore you, and you will not find any change in the law of God‖ (al-Ahzab 33: 62); ―It is the law ofGod which has taken course aforetime. You will not find any change in the law of God‖ (al-Fath 48:23); ―…You will not find any change in the law of God, nor will you find any alteration in the lawof God‖ (al-Fatir 35: 43). This means that the Almighty living God of the Torah and the Injil (the HolyBible) protects his inspired word in his Holy Bible from alteration and corruption so that futuregenerations of believers may not be misguided and led astray by corrupted texts.We present herein a brief survey of the pronouncements of the Qur‘an on the textual authenticity of boththe Old Testament (the Torah) and the New Testament (the Injil). The Qur‘an declares that the trueunchanged Torah existed in the first century AD at the time of Jesus (Isa) and John the Baptist (Yahya):―O Yahya! take hold of the Book with might…‖ (Maryam 19: 12); “And God will teach him (Jesus)the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel” (al-‗Imran 3: 48); ―And Isa (Jesus), the son of 19Maryam, said: O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of God (sent) to you, confirming that which isbetween my hands from the Torah…‖ (al-Saff 61: 6); ―And in their footsteps We sent Isa (Jesus) the Page
son of Maryam, confirming the Torah which was between his hands, and We gave him the Injil(Gospel)--therein is guidance and light, and attesting to (the truth of) the Torah which was betweenhis hands: a guidance and an admonition to the righteous‖ (al-Ma‘idah 5: 46); ―And Maryam, thedaughter of Imran (Jesus‘ mother) … believed in the words of her Lord and his books…‖ (al-Tahrim66: 12); ―Then will God say: O Isa (Jesus) the son of Maryam! recount My favor to you and to yourmother when I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit, so that you spoke to the people in childhood andin maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Injil (Gospel)…‖ (al-Ma‘idah 5: 110).The Qur‘an confirms that the Torah and the Injil (the Holy Bible) were unchanged and authentic in theseventh century AD at the time of Muhammad:―And before this, was the Book of Moses as a guide and a mercy: and this Book confirms (it) in theArabic tongue…‖ (al-Ahqaf 46: 12); ―To you (Muhammad) We sent the Book in truth, attesting to (thetruth of) that which is between his hands from the Books, and guarding it in safety…‖ (al-Ma‘idah5: 48); ―This Qur-an is not such as can be produced by other than God; but it is a confirmation of that(the Torah and Injil) which is between his (its) hands, and an explanation of the Book - wherein thereis no doubt - from the Lord of the Worlds‖ (Yunus 10: 37); ―…The promise of God is true in theTorah, the Injil (Gospel), and the Qur-an, and who is more faithful to his Covenant than God?...‖ (al-Tawbah 9: 111); ―That which We have revealed to you of the Book is the Truth, attesting to that whichis between his (its) hands (the Torah and the Injil)…‖ (al-Fatir 35: 31); (Yusuf 12: 111; al-Mu‘min 40:69-71; al-Ahqaf 46: 29-30; al-Baqarah 2:91; al-‗Imran 3: 3-4; al-Nisa‘ 4: 47). The Qur‘an speaks aboutsome unbelieving Arab Jews in Medina who tried to change the Qur‘an, and misinterpret, distort andconceal the meaning of the Torah (al-Baqarah 2: 40-42, 75, 140, 174; al-‗Imran 3: 70, 78; al-Nisa‘ 4: 46-47). None of these verses imply that some unbelieving Jews attempted to change the text of the Torah.And these verses do not mention the Injil at all.The Qur‘an appeals to the Torah and the Injil:“… Bring the Torah and read it, if you are men of truth” (al-‗Imran 3: 93); ―But why do they cometo you for decision, when they have the Torah in which is the command of God…‖ (al-Ma‘idah 5:43); ―Let the People of the Injil (Gospel) judge by what God has revealed in it. If any fail to judge bywhat God has revealed, they are licentious‖ (al-Ma‘idah 5: 47); ―Say: O People of the Book! You haveno ground to stand upon until you perform the Torah, and the Injil (Gospel), and what was revealedto you from your Lord…‖ (al-Ma‘idah 5: 68—this is the last Sura of the Qur‘an provided in 10 AH; al-Najm 53: 36-37; al-Shu‘ara‘ 26: 196-197; al-Isra‘ 17: 101; al-Ra‘d 13: 43; al-A‘raf 7: 170; al-‗Imran 3:79; al-Nisa‘ 4: 60; al-Ma‘idah 5: 45).The Qur‘an quotes from the Holy Bible:―Before this We wrote in the Psalms, after the Message (given to Moses): My servants, the righteous,shall inherit the earth‖ (al-Anbiya‘ 21: 105)—this is a direct quotation from Psalm 37: 29: “Therighteous shall inherit the earth, and dwell in it forever.” ―We ordained therein for them (the Jews):Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal…‖ (al-Ma‘idah 5: 45)--this is a quotation from the law God gave Moses in the Torah, Exodus 21: 23-25: “But 20if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, footfor foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.” Page
The Qur‘an testifies to the Inspiration of the Holy Bible:―We have sent you inspiration, as We sent it to Nuh (Noah) and the Prophets after him: We sentinspiration to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq (Isaac), Yaqub (Jacob), and the (Jewish) Tribes, to Isa(Jesus), Ayyub (Job), Yunus (Jonah), Harun, and Sulaiman (Solomon), and to Dawud (David) Wegave the Psalms‖ (al-Nisa‘ 4: 163); ―Thus He (God) sends inspiration to you as (He did) to thosebefore you…‖ (al-Shura 42: 3; al-Hadid 57: 27); ―…Say: ‗Who then sent down the Book which Musa(Moses) brought? A light and guidance to man…‘ Say: ‗God (sent it down)‘…‖ (al-An‘am 6: 91); “We(God) sent down the Torah: therein was guidance and light…” (al-Ma‘idah 5: 44, 46; al-Furqan 25:35; al-Qasas 28: 43; al-Mu‘minun 23: 49; al-Sajdah 32: 23).The Qur‘an designates the Torah and the Injil (the Holy Bible) as the criterion (al-furqan) and theguidance: ―We granted to Musa (Moses) and Harun (Aaron) the Criterion, and a Light and aReminder for the righteous‖ (al-Anbiya‘ 21: 48); “And We (God) gave Moses the Torah and theCriterion…” (al-Baqarah 2: 53; al-‗Imran 3: 3-4).The Qur‘an tells pagan Arabs to ask the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) about theprophets. It would surely be unhelpful and outright misleading to ask them if the Torah and the Injil, thesource of their knowledge, had been corrupted:―And before you (Muhammad), We sent no one except men, to whom We granted inspiration. Ask thepeople of the Scripture, if you do not know” (al-Anbiya‘ 21: 7); ―And We have not sent before you(Muhammad) other than men, to whom We granted inspiration. Ask the people of the Message(Scripture) if you do not know‖ (al-Nahl 16: 43).In fact, the Qur‘an instructs Muhammad himself to learn from the people of the Book (Jews andChristians). This means that the Torah and the Injil, the sources of their knowledge and faith, weregenuine and true:―If you (Muhammad) are in doubt regarding what We have revealed to you, then ask those who havebeen reading the Book from before you…‖ (Yunus 10: 94).The above testimonies of the Qur‘an establish that, according to the Qur‘an, there were uncorruptedauthentic Torah and Injil (the Holy Bible) at the time of Muhammad in the seventh century AD. Today‘sBible is the same as the Holy Bible of Muhammad‘s day. Both are based on ancient manuscripts thathad originated centuries before Muhammad‘s time. In addition, the Qur‘an, the Hadith and the classicalIslamic commentaries do not make any explicit or implicit claims whatsoever about abrogating theTorah or the Injil in part or in whole. In fact, the Qur‟an requires the Muslim person to believe inthe Torah (the Old Testament) and the Injil (the New Testament), which means that the Muslimperson is required to read them with reverence: “Say: We believe in God, and in what has beenrevealed to us and what was revealed to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq (Isaac), Yaqub (Jacob), and the(Jewish) Tribes, and is given to Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus), and the Prophets, from their Lord: wemake no distinction between one and another among them…” (al-‗Imran 3: 84; al-Baqarah 2: 285);“And who believe in the Revelation sent to you (Muhammad), and sent before your time, have theassurance of the Hereafter” (al-Baqarah 2: 4); “…and the believers, believe in what has beenrevealed to you and what was revealed before you… to them shall We give a great reward” (al- 21Nisa‘ 4: 162); ―Those who deny God and His Messengers, and (those who) wish to separate Godfrom His Messengers, saying: „We believe in some but reject others,‟ and wish to take a course Pagemidway: They are in truth (equally) unbelievers; and We have prepared for unbelievers a humiliating
punishment…‖ (al-Nisa‘ 4: 150-151, 136). These verses explain clearly to the Muslim person that beliefin the Qur‘an alone is not sufficient. It requires him to also believe in the Torah and the Injil (the entireHoly Bible) in order to get the greatest reward.2. The Authenticity of the Biblical Text According to Early Islamic TraditionIn early Islam, the Holy Bible was accepted by Muslims as the true word of God (ibn Ishaq al-Nadim [d.990], The Fihrist, Vol. 1, p. 45). Later on, the Spanish Islamic theologians ibn-Khazem (d. 1064) andBiruni began to claim, without any proof, that the text of the New Testament (Injil) might have beenaltered. They did that in order to explain the conflict between the teachings of the Injil and the Qur‘an:―As studies of Islamic apologetics have shown, it was only with ibn-Khazem, who died in Cordoba in1064, that the charge of falsification was born. In his defense of Islam against Christians, ibn-Khazemcame up against the contradictions between the Quran and the Gospels. One obvious example was theQuranic text: ―. . . They slew him not, and they crucified him not . . .‖ (Surah 4: 157). ―Since the Quranmust be true," ibn-Khazem argued, "it must be the conflicting Gospel texts that are false. ButMuhammad tells us to respect the Gospel. Therefore, the present text must have been falsified by theChristians.‖ His argument was not based on historical facts, but purely on his own reasoning and on hiswish to safegaurd the truth of the Quran. Once he was on this path, nothing could stop him frompursuing this accusation. In fact, it seemed the easiest way to attack the opponents. ―If we prove thefalsehood of their books, they lose the arguments they take from them.‖ This led him eventually to makethe cynical statement: ―The Christians lost the revealed Gospel except for a few traces which God leftintact as argument against them.‖Many of the great Muslim thinkers have, indeed, accepted the authenticity of the New Testament text.Listing the names of these men seems a fitting conclusion to this essay. Their testimony proves thatChristian-Muslim dialogue need not for ever be stymied by the allegation introduced by ibn-Khazem.Two great historians, al-Mas‘udi (died 956) and ibn-Khaldun (died 1406), held the authenticity of theGospel text. Four well-known theologians agreed with this: Ali at-Tabari (died 855), Qasim al-Khasani(died 860), Amr al-Ghakhiz (died 869 ) and, last but not least, the famous AI-Ghazzali (died 1111).Their view is shared by Abu Ali Husain ibn Sina, who is known in the West as Avicenna (died 1037).Bukhari (died 870), who acquired a great name by his collection of early traditions, quoted the Quranitself (Sura 3: 72, 78) to prove that the text of the Bible is not falsified" (Can We Trust the Gospel? J.Wingaard; as cited from The Islamic Christian Controversy, G. Nehls, p. 1f).V. BIBLE PROPHECYThe Old Testament is rich in Messianic prophecies about both the first and the second advents of Christ(approximately 60 major Messianic prophecies and 270 ramifications). The fulfillment of the propheciesof the first advent occurs in the New Testament account of the incarnation, life, miracles, crucifixion,and resurrection of Christ: “Then He (Christ) said to them, „These are the words which I spoke toyou while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law ofMoses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me‟” (Luke 24: 44). Therefore, if you want toknow more about the life, work and teachings of Christ, you may want to read one of the four gospels.You can start with the gospel of Luke and then second with the gospel of John. 22The following are a few examples of Messianic prophecies and their fulfillment in history: Page
1. In the eighth century B.C, the prophet Isaiah had prophesied the virgin birth of Jesus: ―Therefore theLord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall callHis name Immanuel (Literally God-With-Us)‖ (Isaiah 7: 14). This prophecy was fulfilled in the birthof Jesus from virgin Mary in about 5 B.C.: “Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: After Hismother Mary was betrothed to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of theHoly Spirit” (Matthew 1: 18).2. In the eighth century B.C., the prophet Micah had prophesied the location of Jesus‘ birth: “But you,Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of you shallcome forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, whose goings forth are from of old, fromeverlasting” (Micah 5: 2). This prophecy was fulfilled in the birth of Jesus in the village of Bethlehemin 5 B.C.: “Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold,wise men from the East came to Jerusalem” (Matthew 2: 1).3. In the tenth century B.C, the prophet and king David had prophesied the crucifixion of Jesus: “Theypierced My hands and My feet… They divide My garments among them, and for My clothing theycast lots” (Psalm 22: 16b, 18); “All those who see Me ridicule Me. They shoot out the lip, theyshake the head, saying: He trusted in the LORD, let Him rescue Him; let Him deliver Him, sinceHe delights in Him” (Psalm 22: 7-8); “And for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink” (Psalm69: 21b). These prophecies were fulfilled in the crucifixion of Jesus in about 30 A.D.: “And when theycrucified Him, they divided His garments, casting lots for them to determine what every manshould take” (Mark 15: 24); “And those who passed by blasphemed Him” (Mark 15: 29a); “Oneman ran, filled a sponge with wine vinegar, put it on a stick, and offered it to Jesus to drink”(Mark 15: 36a).4. Jesus prophesied his own resurrection: “Jesus answered and said to them, „Destroy this temple,and in three days I will raise it up.‟ Then the Jews said, „It has taken forty-six years to build thistemple, and will You raise it up in three days?‟ But He was speaking of the temple of His body”(John 2: 19-21). This prophecy was fulfilled in the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead around 30A.D. The Apostle Paul wrote: “For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: thatChrist died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He roseagain the third day according to the Scriptures, and that He was seen by Cephas, then by thetwelve. After that He was seen by over five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater partremain to the present, but some have fallen asleep. After that He was seen by James, then by allthe apostles. Then last of all He was seen by me also, as by one born out of due time” (1Corinthians 15: 3-8).5. The prophet Daniel of the sixth century B.C. prophesied the second coming of Christ in glory andjudgment: “I was watching in the night visions, and behold, One like the Son of Man (Christ),coming with the clouds of heaven! He came to the Ancient of Days (God the Father), and theybrought Him near before Him. Then to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, thatall peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion,which shall not pass away, and His kingdom the one which shall not be destroyed” (Daniel 7: 13-14). This prophecy will be fulfilled in the second coming of Christ at the end of the age: “Jesus said, "Iam. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming with theclouds of heaven” (Mark 14: 62).In addition to the Messianic prophecies of the Old Testament, the Holy Bible contains many other 23prophecies which have been fulfilled in history many years after the prophecies were uttered: propheciesconcerning the rise and fall of the ancient Babylonian, Persian, Greek and Roman empires (Daniel 2); Pageprophecies concerning the fall of the ancient Assyrian empire (Nahum 2-3); prophecies concerning the
destruction of the northern kingdom of Israel by the Assyrian empire (Isaiah 28; Hosea 10; Joel 2: 1-11;Micah 1-2), and the southern kingdom of Israel by the Babylonian empire (Isaiah 29; Jeremiah 2-29;Zephaniah 1); prophecies concerning the destruction of the city of Tyre (Ezekiel 26); and propheciesconcerning the destruction of Jerusalem and its Jewish temple in the first century AD (Luke 19: 41-44;Matthew 24: 1-2).VI. BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGYThe Holy Bible provides the story of the fall of humankind and God‘s work to save and restorehumanity. It is not intended to be a history book. However, the history it narrates is accurate. The eventsit describes are historical facts that have been recorded with remarkable accuracy in its properchronological, historical, social, cultural, and geographical settings. The revelation of the Old Testament(the Torah) lays the foundation of the revelation of the New Testament (the Injil). Therefore, theaccuracy of the Old Testament is essential for the integrity of the New Testament. The confirmation ofthe history narrated in the Holy Bible does not demonstrate the validity of the theological truth itdeclares. However, the veracity of the Biblical historical narrative lends credence to its theologicalmessage. More than a century and a half of archeological discoveries in Biblical lands have confirmedthe accuracy of the geography, the topography, the history, and the culture recorded in the Holy Bible.The peoples, locations, and events described in the Holy Bible are found where the Holy Bible placesthem. Archeology also corroborates the ethnography summarized in the Table of Nations of Genesis 10-11, which describes the origins and relationships of the ancient tribes of Biblical lands.A few examples are cited herein of historical information provided in the Holy Bible and confirmed byarcheological discoveries:1. Abraham‟s Family. Sarah, Abraham‘s wife, was barren. Therefore, she gave Hagar, her Egyptianslave, to her husband Abraham as a concubine in order to provide him with an heir (Genesis 16: 2-3).“So Hagar bore Abram a son; and Abram named his son, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael.” (Genesis16: 15). What Sarah did was in full accord with the prevailing local customs of northern Mesopotamia atthat time as provided in the Nuzu tablets. These tablets were discovered in the archeological excavationsof 1925-1941 at Nuzu near Kirkuk in northern Iraq. Some twenty thousand clay tablets written in anancient Babylonian dialect were unearthed. These tablets provide an accurate record of the social andlegal structure of the second millennium B.C. Assyrian society.But God had another plan for Abraham, as he subsequently promised and miraculously gave him a sonfrom his wife Sarah. God made that promise when Abraham was one hundred years old and Sarahninety years old: “Then God said: "No, Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you shall call hisname Isaac; I will establish My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with hisdescendants after him. And as for Ishmael, I have heard you. Behold, I have blessed him, and willmake him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly. He shall beget twelve princes, and I willmake him a great nation. But My covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear toyou at this set time next year."” (Genesis 17: 19-21). After the miraculous birth of Isaac, Sarah askedher husband Abraham to cast out Hagar and her son Ishmael (Genesis 21: 10). Abraham wasapprehensive about that request because ―such action was in direct contravention of Nuzu law and socialcustom as by purely humanitarian considerations. However, it is important in this connection to noticethat Sarah‘s action could have been defended according to the ancient Sumerian code of Lipit-Ishtar (ca.1850 B.C.), one of the sources underlying the legislation of Hammurabi, which stated that the freedomreceived by the dispossessed slave was to be considered adequate compensation for the act of expulsion‖(R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament [Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 242004], p. 109). Page
2. The Conquest of Canaan. The book of Joshua describes the rapid conquest of the land of Canaan(Palestine), which took place under the leadership of Joshua after forty years of wandering in thewilderness of Sinai. Archeological discoveries at Jericho, Bethel, Lachish, Debir, Hebron, Gibeah, andHazor show that these sites were destroyed in the fourteenth century B.C. This indicates that the land ofCanaan was occupied rapidly by the Israelite invaders as described in the book of Joshua.3. The Biblical History of Ancient Israel. 2 Kings 17 records the fall of Samaria, the capital of thenorthern kingdom of Israel, and the exile of many Israelites in 722 B.C. to the Assyrian empire. Theseevents are documented in the Annals of Khorsabad (a town north of Musel in Iraq) written in cuneiformon clay tablets discovered in 1842 in the great castle of Sargon II, king of Assyria.Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Babylonian empire, invaded the southern kingdom of Israel (Judah) in 605,597, and 589-586 B.C. Its capital Jerusalem collapsed and was finally destroyed by the Babylonianattacks. A portion of the Israelite population was deported to Babylon in 605, 597 and 586 B.C. (2 Kings24-25). This marked the end of the history of ancient Israel. ―Excavations at Lachish, Tell en-Nesbeh,and artifacts recovered from the site of Ishtar Gate in Babylon have furnished conclusive proof of thedevastation and depopulation of Judah and the presence of Jewish exiles in Babylon from 597 B.C. on‖(R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament [Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc,2004], p. 339).Modern archeological discoveries have also vindicated the historicity of the events related to the returnof Jewish exiles to Jerusalem form the Babylonian captivity about 537 B.C. as described in the Biblicalbooks of Ezra and Nehemiah (W. Keller, The Bible as History, Trans. W. Neil [New York, N.Y.:Bantam Books, 1982], pp. 329-336). The most significant of these archeological finds are the CyrusCylinders and the Elephantine papyri (J. P. Free, and H. F. Vos, Archeology and Bible History [GrandRapids, MI.: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992], pp. 203-206, 211).4. The Life of Christ and the Early Church. Archeological discoveries confirm the geography andreign of various political and religious leaders mentioned in the Gospels and the book of Acts, as well asthe crucifixion of the Christ (J. P. Free, and H. F. Vos, Archeology and Bible History [Grand Rapids,MI.: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992], pp. 241-281).5. The Testimony of Archeologists. World renowned archeologists, who were not conservativeChristians and did not believe in the inspiration of the Holy Bible, arrived at the followings conclusionsbased strictly on archeological discoveries and studies: (a) William F. Albright, one of the world leading archeologists, stated: ―There can be no doubt that archeology has confirmed the substantial historicity of Old Testament tradition‖ (J. A. Thompson, The Bible and Archeology [Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1975], p. 5). (b) Nelson Glueck, another world renowned archeologist, concurs stating: ―As a matter of fact, however, it may be clearly stated categorically that no archeological discovery has ever controverted a single Biblical reference. Scores of archeological findings have been made which confirm in clear outline or exact detail historical statements in the Bible‖ (Norman Geisler and Ron Brooks, When Skeptics Ask: A Handbook on Christian Evidences [Wheaton, IL: Victor, 1990], p. 179).The following webpage provides additional information on the subject matter: 25The Bible‘s Archeological evidence Page
VII. DOCTRINES TO WHICH THE HOLY BIBLE IS STRONGLY OPPOSED: 1. The Doctrine of Abrogation of Divine Revelation is Unbiblical The doctrine of abrogation of a revelation to replace it with a new revelation which is different from it and may be contradictory to it is strongly refuted in the Holy Bible: “My covenant I will not break, Nor alter the word that has gone out of My lips” (Psalm 89: 34); “God is not a man, that He should lie, nor a son of man, that He should repent. Has He said, and will He not do? Or has he spoken, and will He not make it good?” (Numbers 23: 19). This doctrine has never been proclaimed by any prophet, by Christ or by any of his apostles throughout the Holy Bible. The inspired word of God is never abrogated: “Do not think that I (Christ) came to destroy the Law (of Moses in the Torah) or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one title will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled” (Matthew 5: 17-18); “Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words (Christ’s words) will by no means pass away” (Matthew 24: 35); “All flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of the grass. The grass withers, and its flower falls away, but the word of the Lord endures forever” (1 Peter 1: 24-25a). Moses’ prophetic career spanned forty years with the Israelites both in Egypt and the wilderness of Sinai. Not one verse of the commandments and the law that God gave him in the Torah was abrogated. None of the teachings of Jesus was abrogated by him or by his apostles after him. All the requirements and first advent prophecies in the Old Testament (the Torah) were fulfilled in Christ who came about 1400 years after Moses. By contrast, Muhammad gave the Qur’an in 23 years. It contained much abrogation!Progressive revelation in the books of the Holy Bible builds upon the original foundation laid down byformer revelation in older biblical books. For a new revelation to be genuine and valid, it should beconsistent with itself, and with the whole complex of former existing revelation. It expounds on it,supplements it, fulfills it, completes it, and provides additional development to it as the humankinddevelops, matures, and becomes more receptive over a period of centuries, not days, months or years.Abrogation of God‘s revelation by a subsequent revelation is not consistent with the wisdom,truthfulness, perfect knowledge, and foreknowledge of the living almighty God. God gives perfectrevelation from the beginning. He does not improve upon himself because he is perfect. In fact, thedoctrine of short term abrogation of revelation encourages the rise of false prophets, for if a falseprophet provides a teaching that is later proven wrong, or his listeners later object to it, he could thenabrogate it to suit the situation claiming that God abrogated it. So, a false prophet would use the doctrineof abrogation to lighten the requirements of a difficult teaching, that his followers object to, in order toobtain their acceptance and loyalty. He also could use this concept to spare himself the embarrassmentof forgetting a former teaching by claiming that his new teaching, which is different from the former 26one, abrogated the former teaching. Abrogation of verses brings to mind the situation of a human authorcorrecting, on a second thought, the proofs of his manuscript, replacing sentences or passages with Pageothers. One cannot trust the promises of a god who changes his mind. Just as he changes his mind about
his revelation, he can also change his mind about the eternal destiny of the believer. Therefore, onecannot find assurance and security in following that kind of god. One major problem with the doctrine ofabrogation is that it causes confusion and disagreements in qualifying and pinpointing the abrogatingand the abrogated verses.The Qur‘an institutes the doctrine of abrogation in Islam: ―If we abrogate a verse or cause it to beforgotten, we will replace it with a better one or one similar. Did you not know that God has power overall things? (Sura al-Baqarah 2: 106); ―When we replace one verse with another and God knows bestwhat he reveals, they say: ‗You are an imposter.‘ Indeed most of them have no knowledge‖ (Sura an-Nahl 16: 101); ―God abrogates or confirms whatever he will, for he has the book of books‖ (Sura al-Ra‘d 13: 39; al-A‘la 87: 6-8). Imam al-Hafez Emad al-Din ibn Kathir stated in his ―Exegesis of theQur‘an‖ (vol. 1, p. 104): ―According to ibn Jarir‘s comment on the verse of al-Baqarah 2: 106, it meansthat we prohibit what has been permitted and permit what has been prohibited.‖ In doing this, the Qur‘ancontradicts its claims that: ―There is no changing the word of God‖ (al-An‘am 6: 34, 115; Yunus 10: 64;al-Kahf 18: 27); ―This is a glorious Qur‘an on a preserved tablet‖ (al-Buruj 85: 21-22). In fact, someverses were abrogated and replaced the next day. The beginning of Sura al-Muzzammil 73: 2-4 wasabrogated by its end (al-Muzzammil 73: 20), and the abrogator has been subsequently abrogated by theinjunction of the five prayers. Does not this sound like experimentation and trial-and-error approach,which are not consistent with the infinite wisdom of the all-knowing living God of the universe, whodoes not make mistakes and does not lack experience?Out of a total of 114 Surah (chapter) of the Qur‘an, only 43 Surahs do not contain abrogating and/orabrogated verses. This means that 71 Surahs (nearly two-thirds of the Qur‘an) contain abrogating and/orabrogated verses as follows: 6 Surahs contain abrogating verses, 25 Surahs contain both abrogating andabrogated verses, and 40 Surahs contain abrogated verses (Abil-Kasim Hibat-Allah ibn-Salama Abi-Nasr, al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh__The Abrogator and the Abrogated). It is estimated that more than 500verses (more than 3% of the Qur‘an) have been abrogated. There are great disagreements among Muslimscholars about the abrogating and the abrogated verses in the Qur‘an. These disagreements are tracedback to early Islam. In fact, the companions of Muhammad were confused about it. For instance, twohadiths mention that verse al-Baqarah 2: 185 abrogated verse al-Baqarah 2: 184 (Bukhari, vol. 6, book60, #33, #34), whereas one hadith stipulates it was not abrogated (Bukhari vol. 6, book 60, #32). Thefounding scholars of Islam could not even agree on whether the Qur‘an abrogates only the Qur‘an, or theQur‘an and the Sunnah abrogate each other as well. This means that Islam has no definitive knowledgeof what it claims to be the perfect and final revelation for all times.Although they lost their validity, most of the abrogated verses are still in the Qur‘an, and are still recited.Muslim clerics and Islamists quote the abrogated Meccan passages of the Qur‘an that call for love,peace, and religious freedom and tolerance in order to deceive the innocent. They intentionally hide theMedinan passages that abrogate it, and call for killing, decapitating, maiming and intolerance of non-Muslims. The historical background of this split personality in the Qur‘an is that the teachings ofMuhammad were tolerant when he started his career in Mecca because his followers were few, and hewas surrounded by potential enemies. However, after he gained military and political power in Medinaand his followers increased in number, his teachings became intolerant and advocated violence againstnon-Muslims. In fact, according to Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti, al-Itqan fi ‗Ulum al-Qur‘an, vol. 2, p. 24, ibnal-Arabi had said: ―All the Qur‘an contains pertaining to tolerance for non-believers have beenabrogated by the verse of the sword: ‗When the sacred months are over slay the idolaters wherever youfind them. Arrest them, besiege them, and lie in ambush everywhere for them. If they repent and take toprayer and render the alms levy, allow them to go their way. God is forgiving and merciful‘ (al-Tawbah 279: 5). And this verse abrogated 124 verses.‖ Page
The following are but a few examples of the abrogated and the abrogating verses in the Qur‘an. Thefollowing verses speak about religious tolerance: ―You have your own religion, and I have mine‖ (al-Kafirun 109: 6); ―There shall be no compulsion in religion‖ (al-Baqarah 2: 256a; Yunus 10: 100; etc).These verses were abrogated by the following verses: ―He that chooses religion other than Islam, it willnot be accepted from him and in the world to come he will surely be among the losers‖ (al-‗Imran 3:85); ―Fight against such of those to whom the Scriptures were given (Christians and Jews) as believe inneither God nor the last day, who do not forbid what God and his apostle (Muhammad) have forbidden,and do not embrace the true faith (Islam) until they pay tribute out of hand and are utterly subdued‖ (al-Tawbah 9: 29; etc). The following verses speak of tolerance for the polytheists: ―The secrets of thehearts of these people are well known to God. So leave them alone, and counsel them and speak to themeloquent words that would touch their very souls‖ (al-Nisa‘ 4: 63; al-Hijr 15: 85; Ta Ha 20: 130; etc).These verses were abrogated by verses of violence: ―When you clash with the unbelievers smite theirnecks, and when you have overpowered them bind your captives firmly. Them grant them their freedomor take a ransom from them until war shall have come to an end‖ (Muhammad 47: 4a); ―And your Lordsaid to the angels: I shall be with you. Give courage to the believers. I shall cast terror into the hearts ofthe infidels. Smite them on their necks and every joint‖ (al-Anfal 8: 12, 38; al-Nisa‘ 4: 89; etc).2. The Doctrine of Satanic Inspiration is UnbiblicalAll the prophets and apostles that were inspired throughout many centuries to write the books of theHoly Bible were never deceived by Satan to provide wrong teaching that confuses the people and leadsthem astray. The Holy Spirit of the omnipotent divine God has protected the inspired word of God fromcorruption by misleading satanic teachings. A god unable to protect his inspired word in the mouth ofhis prophet from satanic corruption is not the true living almighty God of the universe. The Holy Bibleteaches that the concept of misleading Satanic inspiration is not true: “All Scripture is given byinspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction inrighteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work”(2 Timothy 3: 16-17).Demonic and satanic powers fear God and his prophets. Jesus set many people free from demonicpowers that possessed and tormented them. Demons knew that he was the Christ (Luke 4: 41; 8: 26-39;Mark 9: 17-29; Matthew 8: 16, 28-34; 9: 32-33; 12: 22-23). They feared him and fled from him:“Now in the synagogue there was a man who had a spirit of an unclean demon. And he cried outwith a loud voice, saying, „Let us alone! What have we to do with you, Jesus of Nazareth? Did youcome to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!‟ But Jesus rebuked him saying,„Be quiet, and come out of him!‟ And when the demon had thrown him in their midst, it came outof him and did not hurt him. Then they were all amazed and spoke among themselves, saying,„What a word this is! For with authority and power He commands the unclean spirits, and theycome out” (Luke 4: 33-36).“Then they sailed to the country of the Gadarenes, which is opposite Galilee. And when Hestepped out on the land, there met Him a certain man from the city who had demons for a longtime. And he wore no clothes, nor did he live in a house but in the tombs. When he saw Jesus, hecried out, fell down before Him, and with a loud voice said, "What have I to do with You, Jesus,Son of the Most High God? I beg You, do not torment me!" For He had commanded the uncleanspirit to come out of the man. For it had often seized him, and he was kept under guard, boundwith chains and shackles; and he broke the bonds and was driven by the demon into the 28wilderness. Jesus asked him, saying, "What is your name?” And he said, "Legion," because many Pagedemons had entered him. And they begged Him that He would not command them to go out into
the abyss. Now a herd of many swine was feeding there on the mountain. So they begged Him thatHe would permit them to enter them. And He permitted them. Then the demons went out of theman and entered the swine, and the herd ran violently down the steep place into the lake anddrowned. When those who fed them saw what had happened, they fled and told it in the city andin the country. Then they went out to see what had happened, and came to Jesus, and found theman from whom the demons had departed, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed and in his rightmind. And they were afraid” (Luke 8: 26-35).In fact, Christ stated emphatically that Satan has no power over him: “The prince of this world (Satan)is coming. He has no hold on me” (John 14: 30b). In addition, his disciples exorcised demons in hisname: “Then the seventy (disciples) returned with joy, saying, Lord, even the demons are subjectto us in Your name” (Luke 10: 17).A major problem with the doctrine of deceptive satanic inspiration is that the prophet who claims it loseshis credibility. There may be some other satanically inspired verses that were never corrected, becausethat self-proclaimed prophet failed to distinguish between godly and satanic inspiration. As far as weknow, satanic and demonic inspirations are related to occult and witchcraft practitioners, not the saintlyprophets of the living God.The doctrine of satanic inspiration is taught in the Qur‘an ―Never have we sent a single prophet orapostle before you with whose wishes Satan did not tamper. But God abrogates the interjections of Satanand confirms his own revelations. God is all knowing and wise‖ (al-Hajj 22: 52). However, the Qur‘andid not cite a single specific incident where Satan caused a prophet or apostle of God before Muhammadto utter what the prophet proclaimed to be revelation from God, and later the prophet reversed that andclaimed it was Satan, not God, who inspired him. The Qur‘an could not be trusted because Muhammadcould not distinguish between godly and satanic inspiration. This doctrine conflicts with the challenge ofthe Qur‘an to produce something like it: ―Say: ‗Surely if men and Jinn were to gather together toproduce the like of this Qur-an they could not produce its like, even if they backed up each other withhelp and support‘‖ (al-Isra‘ 17: 88; al-Baqarah 2: 23; Yunus 10: 38). Satan met that challengesuccessfully by providing his satanic verses. A famous example for the claim of satanic inspiration inthe Qur‘an is what is known as the satanic verses of the Qur‘an, which are the words that Satan put inMuhammad‘s mouth. Muhammad recited Satan‘s words as the word of God, which made him themessenger of Satan: ―Have you considered al-Lat and al-‗Uzza and Manat, the other third? [The following verses in italics are called the satanic verses, which were later removed from the Qur‘an:] These are the high flying cranes (exalted intermediaries—goddesses of Quraysh), whose intercession is to be hoped for. Such as they do not forget” (al-Najm 53: 19-22). After removing these verses, they were replaced with al-Najm 53: 21-26, which include the following end of this passage: “These are only names which you and your fathers have invented. No authority was sent down by God for them.”The satanic verses of the Qur‘an taught worshipping three pagan goddesses alongside Allah(polytheism): al-Lat, al-‗Uzza and Manat, the daughters of Allah, the moon god of pagan Arabia ofMuhammad‘s time. These were four idols worshipped in Mecca. Of course, the pagans of Mecca, whoconstituted the majority of the Meccan population at that time, were pleased to hear that their goddesseswere acknowledged to be worshipped. Upon the objection of some of his followers, Muhammad, after 29almost a year, claimed that these verses were inspired by Satan, and dropped them from the Qur‘an. Page
It is important to point out that the information about the satanic verses of the Qur‘an and the historicalcircumstances surrounding them have been recorded in detail by reputable, scrupulously honest andcompetent Muslim scholars such as ibn Ishaq (d. 765), al-Tabari (d. 922), ibn Sa‘d and others in theirbiographical and historical accounts of Muhammad. In addition, the Qur‘an confirms it in surah al-Hajj22: 52.VIII. CONCLUSIONJesus did not rewrite any of the Old Testament books which had been completed centuries before Histime. In fact, he and his apostles read and taught from them (Luke 4: 16-21; Acts 2: 16-28). In addition,he fulfilled the Old Testament‘s law, and prophecies pertaining to the first advent of the Messiah(Christ): “Do not think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I did not come to destroybut to fulfill” (Matthew 5:17). The New Testament books were added to the already existing OldTestament books. They did not replace them. In fact, no one of the prophets before Christ and no one ofthe apostles and disciples of Christ rewrote any of the books that had been written centuries before histime by other prophets. By contrast, instead of teaching from the Holy Bible, Muhammad redid theentire Bible in what he called the Qur‟an which retells biblical stories taken out of context in adistorted anachronistic way. Will you trust the word of one man whose claims to prophethood wereneither confirmed nor validated by miracles, and whose morality is questionable at best; againstthe words of some 44 saintly men who lived godly lives many centuries before him. Their claims ofprophethood were confirmed and validated by miracles, and many of them were martyred forproclaiming God‟s message? We leave that up to your intelligence and judgment.For additional details, please visit some of these links:1. The Holy Bible2. Studies on the Holy Bible3. The Quran and the Bible in the light of history and science4. The Quran Confirms the Bible Has Never Been Corruptedhttp://3lotus.com/en/Christianity/Bible.htm#IV 30 Page