Bible i hold in my hand outline

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Outline of series on The Bible You Hold In Your Hand: From 2 Timothy 3:15-17 Charles e Whisnant, Teacher

Outline of series on The Bible You Hold In Your Hand: From 2 Timothy 3:15-17 Charles e Whisnant, Teacher

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  • 1. ` This study will focus on why we believe the Bible teaches that the Bible you hold in your hand is the Word of God and directly speaks to you today. The material primarily has come from Jon Gleason Charles e Whisnant: I have researched the subject and added material to go along with these lessons. I have spend many hours a week on this subject, researching and studying. I am amazed how many others have address this topic. I feel like Luke who knew others had written about Christ but he wanted to write Luke and Acts.The Holy Spirit by Whom believers should be God-taught does not render the Scriptures less necessary.He is not given to us in order to introduce new revelations, but to impress the written Word on ourhearts; so that here the Word must never be separated from the Spirit. The former works objectively, thelatter efficiently; the former strikes our ears from without, the latter opens the heart within. The Spirit isthe teacher; Scripture is the doctrine which He teaches us. Francis Turretin, Institutes of Elenctic Theology, Vol I, p.59"The minister as the chief pastoral agent does not inject food intravenously as it were, but he provideswell-prepared food for the flock. He sets it before the flock and persuades them to feed themselves asthey partake of it. It is like filling the stomach with food which then must be digested and transmutedinto strength and flesh and blood. Whatever is to do the soul good must pass through the stomach of themind" (Volbeda, The Pastoral Genius of Preaching, pp. 80-81). AN OUTLINE OF THE SERIES ―THAT BOOK IN YOUR HAND‖ Bibliology: The study of what the Scriptures are and how they came to us. 1. Difficulties of Bible Translations: Part one Parataxis and Hypotaxis: 1 What they mean and why it matters. Mark Snoeberger 1 Page
  • 2. Difficulties of Bible Translations: Part two: Preaching with an interpreter? David Hosaflook 6 2. ―Given By Inspiration‖Let‘s start with II Timothy 3:16-17: 16 All scripture 1124 is (given by inspiration of God2316 ), and is profitable5624 for doctrine1319, for reproof1650, for correction,1882 for instruction3809 in righteousness1343: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. l a. (1) The Greek Word for Inspiration: theoneusos, b. (2) etymology of theopneusos c. (3 hapax legomenon. 2 Timothy 3:17 8 3. Given By Inspiration – theopneusos in Context 13 4. Given by Inspiration – the Connotations of theopneustos 16 5. Three Useful Terms 22 a. (1) Revelation b. (2) Inscripturation c. (3) Immediate Inspiration 6. Theopneustos, Context Revisited 25 7. Copies and Translations 26 8. The Scriptures – Inspired or Expired 30 a. Defining theopneusos b. An unfortunate teaching c. Autographs, Amanuenses and Restricted Inspiration d. Where the teaching is right or wrong e. The inerrancy of the Autographa: Greg Bahnsen f. What Paul Intended: Arthur Pink g. Let’s put 2 Timothy 3:16 back in the Bible: Edwards Gooick 9. The Scriptures: Moved by the Spirit: Part one 36 10. The Scriptures: Moved by the Spirit: Part two: the Words 38 11. The Scriptures: Moved by the Spirit: Pt three: Languages 40 2 Page 12. The Scriptures: Moved by the Spirit: Pt four: Human Writers 43
  • 3. 13. The Scriptures: Moved by the Spirit: Summary 46 14. His Word Will Not Return Void – Preservation Implied 48 15. His Word Will Not Return Void – Direct Teaching 53 THAT BOOK YOU HAVE IN YOUR HAND: Sunday January 08 2011 Charles e Whisnant, Student Given By Inspiration is the Word of God. The Study of what the Scriptures are and how they came to usThe Holy Spirit by Whom believers should be God-taught does not render the Scriptures less necessary.He is not given to us in order to introduce new revelations, but to impress the written Word on ourhearts; so that here the Word must never be separated from the Spirit. The former works objectively, thelatter efficiently; the former strikes our ears from without, the latter opens the heart within. The Spirit isthe teacher; Scripture is the doctrine which He teaches us.Francis Turretin, Institutes of Elenctic Theology, Vol I, p.59"The minister as the chief pastoral agent does not inject food intravenously as it were, but he provides well-prepared food for the flock. He sets it before the flock and persuades them to feed themselves as they partakeof it. It is like filling the stomach with food which then must be digested and transmuted into strength and fleshand blood. Whatever is to do the soul good must pass throught the stomach of the mind" (Volbeda, The PastoralGenius of Preaching, pp. 80-81).SYSTEMATIC Theology Matters Parataxis and Hypotaxis: What They Mean and Why It MattersLanguages are distinguished by many features. One of these distinguishing features is the way that the syntax istypically arranged in a sentence.A paratactic language arranges independent clauses side by side and connects them with coordinatingconjunctions (para--beside; taxon—orderA hypotactic language arranges sentences by subordinating several dependent clauses under a singleindependent clause, connecting them with a variety of devices such as adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions ofboth the coordinating and subordinating variety, participles, infinitives, etc. (hypo--under; taxon--order). Notethe following representative sentenceIn order to render Hebrew into natural English, 3 The relentless stream of ands (waw), must be interpreted and shaped into meaningfully complex Page sentences for maximum understanding. Sometimes the and becomes then or so or but or because. At
  • 4. other times the and becomes a semicolon or a period. Still other times the and is simply omitted as an unnecessary deterrent to understanding. The result is that the single Hebrew sentence that is Genesis 1, for instance, becomes a series of normal, readable paragraphs made from multicolored English sentencesIn order to render Greek into natural English, The massive web of clauses, phrases, transitional and connecting devices must be untangled and simplified in order to qualify as excellent English. The result is that the single Greek sentence that is Ephesians 1:3-14, for instance, becomes a normal, readable paragraph of uniform English sentences In doing this, English translations subject themselves to two criticisms, both of which are valid, but both of which are also overstated: Part Two: Interpreting Ancient Manuscript Difficulties of Bible Translation January 15, 2012The very process of how we came to have that Bible in your hand is an amazing story in the first place.The very thought how the process has developed in bringing us to have our 66 books of the Bible is oneunbelievable story.History of the Bible: How The Bible Came To UsThe New Testament 1. Autographs 45- 95 A.D. The New Testament was written in Greek. The Pauline Epistles, the Gospel of Mark, the Gospel of Luke, and the book of Acts are all dated from 45-63 A.D. The Gospel of John and the Revelation may have been written as late as 95 A.D. 4 2. Manuscripts Page
  • 5. There are over 5,600 early Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament that are still in existence. The oldest manuscripts were written on papyrus and the later manuscripts were written on leather called parchment. Papyrus writing material used by the ancient Egyptians, Greek and Romans that was made from the pith of the stem of a water plant To begin with, the documents that we have the Hebrew and Greek words on them we call manuscripts. 125 A.D. The New Testament manuscript which dates most closely to the original autograph was copied around 125 A.D, within 35 years of the original. It is designated "p 52" and contains a small portion of John 18. (The "p" stands for papyrus.) 200 A.D. Bodmer p 66 a papyrus manuscript which contains a large part of the Gospel of John. 200 A.D. Chester Beatty Biblical papyrus p 46 contains the Pauline Epistles and Hebrews. 225 A.D. Bodmer Papyrus p 75 contains the Gospels of Luke and John. 250-300 A.D. Chester Beatty Biblical papyrus p 45 contains portions of the four Gospels and Acts. 350 A.D. Codex Sinaiticus contains the entire New Testament and almost the entire Old Testament in Greek. It was discovered by a German scholar Tisendorf in 1856 at an Orthodox monastery at Mt. Sinai. 350 A.D. Codex Vaticanus: {B} is an almost complete New Testament. It was cataloged as being in the Vatican Library since 1475. 3. TranslationsEarly translations of the New Testament can give important insight into the underlying Greekmanuscripts from which they were translated. 180 A.D. Early translations of the New Testament from Greek into Latin, Syriac, and Coptic versions began about 180 A.D. 195 A.D. The name of the first translation of the Old and New Testaments into Latin was termed Old Latin, both Testaments having been translated from the Greek. Parts of the Old Latin were found in quotes by the church father Tertullian, who lived around 160-220 A.D. in north Africa and wrote treatises on theology. 300 A.D. The Old Syriac was a translation of the New Testament from the Greek into Syriac. 300 A.D. The Coptic Versions: Coptic was spoken in four dialects in Egypt. The Bible was translated into each of these four dialects. 380 A.D. The Latin Vulgate was translated by St. Jerome. He translated into Latin the Old Testament from the Hebrew and the New Testament from Greek. The Latin Vulgate became the Bible of the Western Church until the Protestant Reformation in the 1500s. It continues to be the authoritative translation of the Roman Catholic Church to this day. The Protestant Reformation saw an increase in translations of the Bible into the common languages of the people.PALEOPGRAPHY: is the study of ancient writing. 5 Page
  • 6. GIVEN BY INSPIRATION – THEOPNEUSTOS, ETYMOLOGY AND hapax legomenon January 22, 2012 Charles e WhisnantWhat in the world does THAT title mean? That‘s three big beasts in there, isn‘t it? I‘ll explain, don‘tworry.Let‘s start with II Timothy 3:16-17: 16 All scripture 1124 is (given by inspiration of God2316 ), and is profitable5624 for doctrine1319, for reproof1650, for correction,1882 for instruction3809 in righteousness1343: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works. lThe English words ”given by inspiration of God” all come from a single Greek word,theopneustos (see, I’ve already explained one of those things in the title, it’s the Greek word for“inspiration by God”). Chares notes: I have put this on another Document:There has perhaps been more written about this one Greek word than any other word in the Bible.Anyone who tells you the proper translation of this word is a simple matter is confused, showing off, orjust wrong.The day of dictionaries Unfortunately hadn’t arrived when the Bible was written, so we don‘t havea handy dictionary of Koine Greek (―common Greek‖, the language of the Bible) to tell us the exactmeaning of the words of the Greek New Testament. In translating ancient languages, we have to look atthe clues to find out what a word means. No Dictionaries Some Clues or Evidence as to MeaningAmong the “clues” as to a word’s meaning in a particular document are: 1. The way the word is used in other documents written previously or at the same time. This can help us to understand what the word meant broadly within the language at the time. 2. The way the word is used in related documents (Scripturally, this would primarily mean other books of the Bible). This helps even more, because a word might have different meanings in 6 different contexts, but if we can find it in a similar context, that is likely to be a strong indicator Page of what it means in the context at hand. For instance, if we want to know what a Biblical author
  • 7. means by a particular word, our best evidence is not how Greek philosophers used the word, but rather how other Biblical authors used it. 3. The way the word is used elsewhere in the document, or in other documents by the same author. This is even better, because it gives us clues as to what this particular writer meant by the word. Scripturally, this would mean, for instance, when trying to decide what John meant by a particular word, it is always a good idea to examine how John used that word elsewhere, and that may give us even better evidence than how Luke or James used the word. If we want to determine what John meant in I John 1:1 by ―Word of life,‖ we need to at least consider the possibility that it is similar to what he wrote in the first few verses of John 1. 4. The way the word is used in the particular context at which we are looking. 5. The words from which it is derived (called etymology — now I‘ve explained another word from the title). 6. The way the word is used in later documents. This can help us understand what the word meant later — but meanings change over time, so it is an imperfect indicator. 7. The grammatical context in which it is used. 8. Any known connotations to the word or its components. 9. Sometimes similar words in other related languages give hints as to meaning. 10. Translations of the text into another language, when available, give further evidence — not necessarily as to the intent of the author, but certainly as to how the translator understood the word. 11. The way the word is used in the particular context at which we are looking. 12. The words from which it is derived (called etymology — now I‘ve explained another word from the title). 13. The way the word is used in later documents. This can help us understand what the word meant later — but meanings change over time, so it is an imperfect indicator. 14. The grammatical context in which it is used. 15. Any known connotations to the word or its components. 16. Sometimes similar words in other related languages give hints as to meaning. 17. Translations of the text into another language, when available, give further evidence — not necessarily as to the intent of the author, but certainly as to how the translator understood the word. hapax legomenon (one time used)Words that only appear once are called hapax legomena (singular hapax legomenon), which means ―saidonce‖ (and that explains the last of the three monsters from the title). The meaning of these words canbe more difficult to determine — we don‘t have clues #2 & 3 above.The Greek word graphe, for instance, appears many times in the New Testament, so we have manycontexts in which to examine it. Thus, we have enough evidence to know exactly what it means —“Scripture‖. A word that only appears once gives us far fewer clues. We have to look carefully at itssingle usage in Scripture, and rely more heavily on the other clues listed above. 7 Page
  • 8. The Greek Word for Inspiration — theopneustos Job 32:8 But [there is] a spirit in man: and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding. http://www.apostolic-churches.net/bible/wordlist/ The Greek Word for Inspiration — theopneustosTheopneustos is particularly awkward for us, because it is not only hapax legomenon, but its usage inKoine Greek (―common Greek‖, the language of the New Testament) is very limited. There is no conclusive evidence that it was ever used before Paul used it here in II Timothy — certainly there are no indications that Paul or Timothy had any prior knowledge of the word. Paul may have actually invented this word (under the guidance of the Holy Spirit). We can‘t assume that any other usage of the word in Greek literature really had the meaning that Paul meant to convey, or the meaning that Timothy received when he read it. In other words, not only are we without clues #2 & 3, #1 is no help to us, either.Clue #10 is of limited value, as well. We don’t have any translations of the New Testament withinperhaps 150 years of the writing of II Timothy. As a result, translations only tell us what someonemuch later thought theopneustos means. They may not be entirely useless, because they may reflect anaccurate tradition of the meaning which was passed down by Paul and Timothy through other believers,but in general we can‘t rely much on clue #10.The wealth of New Testament manuscripts "The New When we come to the New Testament, however, we find a very different picture. Altogether we possess about 5,300 partial or complete Greek manuscripts. Early on, Testament the New Testament books were translated into other languages, which seldom text is far happened with other Greek and Latin writers. This means that in addition to Greek, we better have something like 8,000 manuscripts in Latin, and an additional 8,000 or so attested to manuscripts in other languages such as Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, Coptic, Gothic, than any Slavic, Sahidic and Georgian. As these translations began to be made before the closeother ancient of the second century, they provide an excellent source for assessing the text of the writings" New Testament writings from a very early date. On this latter point Charles H. Welsh, in his book True from the Beginning, quotes from the third edition of the EncyclopediaBritannica: http://www.christianity.co.nz/bible-3.htmDoes that mean we don‘t know what theopneustos meant (and means)? Certainly not. We still haveclues 4-9. For now, I‘m going to skip over clue #4 and go to #5, etymology. I haven‘t forgotten #4, I‘mjust deferring it to a later post. Etymology of theopneustos 2315 Theh op nyoo stos ―given by inspiration of God‖ 8 Study of, history of the origins of words Page
  • 9. As we look at how theopneustos was derived, we find it consists of three parts: 1. theo: from theos, the Greek word for ―God‖. 2. pneus: from pneo, the Greek verb meaning ―breathe‖ or ―blow‖. This is also the root word for pneuma, the Greek word for ―wind‖ and (more commonly in the NT) ―spirit‖. 3. tos: this suffix in ancient Greek, especially with theos (―God‖) almost always, if not always, indicates a passive form — it is describing something which is being done by God.If we are going to define theopneustos etymologically (by its derivation), we would say something like“breathed by God” or “God-breathed‖. ―Given by inspiration of God.http://www.biblestudytools.com/search/?q=hippopotamus&s=References&rc=LEX&rc2=LEX+GRK The Scriptures were ―God-breathed, breathed into by God, and inspired‖. The Spirit of God rested on and in the prophets and spoke through them so that their words did not come from themselves, but from the mouth of God and they spoke and wrote in the Holy Spirit. (Linguistic Key To The Greek N.T.)This is comparable, for example, to another theo-x-tos compound word, in I Thessalonians 4:9, wheretheodidaktos means “taught by God”.We need to be careful with etymology. I‘ll give you an example from English. Water which is safe to drink is called “potable”, which comes from the Greek root potamos, meaning “river” or “stream”. We can see the connection between the English word “potable” and its root (when away from cities, running water is usually safe to drink, standing water often isn‘t), but the meaning is certainly not identical. My Example: Scioto. Deer and the river with hair in it. Etymology — a Starting Point for the Meaning of theopneustos We can‘t entirely trust the way a word was derived to tell us its meaning, but it probably (in this case) provides strong clues. Based on derivation, the Greek word theopneustos (“given by inspiration of God”) has a meaning related to “breathed by God.‖ It is indicating something about the divine origin of the Scriptures — they came from God. To discover if there is more than ―from God‖ to its meaning in II Timothy 3:16, we‘ll have to look for other clues, which we‘ll do in my next lesson. 9 Page
  • 10. “That Book in Your Hand”, on Bibliology (The study of what the Scriptures “Given by Inspiration” — theopneustos in Context January 29, 2012 #4We‘re looking at inspiration from II Timothy 3:16, and in the last week we saw that a single Greekword, theopneustos, is the source of the words ―given by inspiration of God‖ in our KJV translation. We don‘t have as many clues to the meaning of this word as we do for many Greek words, because it only occurs once in the New Testament, it isn‘t a word we see commonly (if at all) in the Greek literature of the day, and it might even be a word that Paul, being moved by the Holy Spirit, invented especially for this purpose.I looked at the etymology of the word (the components from which it is derived) and concluded withthis: We can‘t entirely trust the way a word was derived to tell us its meaning, but it probably (in this case) provides strong clues. Based on derivation, the Greek word theopneustos (―given by inspiration of God‖) has a meaning related to ―breathed by God.‖ It is indicating something about the divine origin of the Scriptures — they came from God. To discover if there is more than ―from God‖ to its meaning in II Timothy 3:16, we‘ll have to look for other clues, which we‘ll do in my next post.As we look at theopneustos (“inspiration”) in II Timothy 3:16, we need to make sure we don‘t missthe forest by looking at one tree in isolation. This is especially true when we need the forest (context) tohelp us figure out what the tree actually is. This is ―clue #4″— the way theopneustos is used incontext. Since we don‘t have clues #1-3, we need to be especially careful in evaluating clues #4 & 5.We’ll be looking at two different aspects of “context” in this discussion. The first deals with whatI‘ll call “content context‖. (The amount of something) The text surrounding word or passage.) The focus here is on seeing theopneustos within the meaning of the verse, the broader passage, and the book in which it appears. Later, we‘ll look at “grammatical context‖, the structure of the sentence in which it appears. II Timothy 3:10-4:8 10 Page Narrower Context
  • 11. As we focus in more narrowly on 3:14-17, if we were to sum up these verses in a single sentence, wemight say, “The Scriptures are full equipment for the things I’m about to exhort you to do.” Let‘slook at the characteristics of Scripture laid out for us in these verses. I‘ll (Jon) call these the trees in theforest: They give confidence (verse 14) They are holy (verse 15) They are understandable (verse 15 — a child can learn from them) They are powerful/able (verse 15, Greek dunamai) They give the wisdom of salvation (verse 15) They teach faith (verse 15) They are “inspired” (verse 16) — theopneustos They are profitable (verse 16) for doctrine, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness They provide complete equipping for all good works (verse 17) “Content Context” — Summary As we seek to understand what God meant by theopneustos, the definition that we attribute to the word has to be firmly anchored in this context. Paul‘s purpose here is pastoral. He is not engaging in an abstract theological discussion. He is about to die, which as Samuel Johnson famously said, ―Concentrates the mind wonderfully.‖ Paul has a practical focus, and urgently exhorts Timothy to trust and use ―That Book in His Hands‖, the one that Timothy will use to preach, reprove, rebuke, and exhort. This is the point of theopneustos (―inspiration‖), to strengthen Timothy‘s faith that the Book he held, read, studied, obeyed, and preached was worthy of those activities. Any definition of theopneustos that doesn‘t do that misses the mark.In apologetic argument, as in everything else we do, we must presuppose the truth of God’s Word. We either accept God’s authority or we do not, and not to do so is sin”1 Presupposition One: God As The Source Of All Knowledge And Truth Presupposition Two: God Reveals Himself To His Creatures Presupposition Three: The Lordship of God Presupposition Four: The Inerrancy Of The Bible6 11 Page
  • 12. TheologyWhat is biblical theology? Don Carson argues that biblical theology stands closer to the text thansystematic theology, aims to achieve genuine sensitivity with respect to the distinctiveness of eachcorpus, and seeks to connect the diverse corpora using their own categories. Ideally, therefore, biblicaltheology stands as a kind of bridge discipline between responsible exegesis and responsible systematictheology (even though each of these inevitably influences the other two). ―Its presuppositions, based on a Christian faith commitment, include belief that the Bible conveys adivine revelation, that the Word of God in Scripture constitutes the norm of Christian faith and life, andthat all the varied material in both Old and New Testaments can in some way be related to the plan andpurpose of the one God of the whole Bible. Such a Biblical Theology stands somewhere between whatthe Bible ‗meant‘ and what it ‗means‘ The Inscripturated Word: A Sermon Inscripturation: when what is communicated in revelation is committed to writing. Taught by Charles e. Whisnant January 29 2012But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whomthou hast learned them; And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able tomake thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. All scripture is given byinspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction inrighteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. (2Timothy 3:14-17)It‘s easy to take for granted that everybody in the Church understands the basics of the Faith. Thisassumption is dangerous. Without the basics, we cannot move ahead in our task to strengthen theChurch, evangelize the world, and Christianize our culture. The basics are truly basic — we cannot livewithout them. From time to time, we need to refresh our understanding of them. Paul once wrote, “To write the same things to you, to me is indeed not grievous [“irksome,” we would say], but for you it is safe” (Phil. 3:1). Don’t be annoyed that you hear the truth a little too much. It’s “safe” to hear it. 12 The Bible is certainly a basic of the Christian Faith Page
  • 13. First: The Bible is preeminently God’s written interpretation of His revelation inhistory.Second, The Bible is God’s inspired WordThe fact that Scripture is breathed out by God is most significant. It means that God is the source of the Bible. We learn elsewhere a little more about this. Peter writes that the Old Testament prophets (many of whose words we find in Scripture) were ―moved,‖ or carried along, by the Holy Ghost (2 Peter. 1:21). God ―breathed out‖ the Scripture and He ―carried along‖ the prophets of the Old Testament in having them communicate His revelation.Third, the Bible is infallible2. This word is not used in the Bible, but it is a very good deduction. We read that God cannot lie (Titus. 1:2). We read that the Bible is His revelation (2 Timothy 3:16-17). We read that His Word is true (John 17:17). We read that His testimonies are sure, or certain (Psalms .19: 7). We everywhere get the impression that God speaks the truth in the Bible. So, the Bible is not filled with mistakes, inaccuracies, or errors. We can trust what the Bible teachesFourth, we accept the Bible on the ground that it is, in fact, the Word of God. Theologians would say that the inspiration and authority of the Bible are ―self-attesting.‖ This means that you can‘t go ―outside‖ the Bible to prove that it is God‘s Word. How could you? To use Cornelius Van Til‘s metaphor, that would be like trying to use a candle to find the sun. If the Bible is truly God‘s Word, and we needed something apart from the Bible to accredit or verify it, then that factor would have greater authority than the Bible. Well, the only factor in the universe greater than the Bible is God Himself, Who wrote it. Therefore, only God can verify His Word!Fifth, the Bible is authoritative. The Scripture summons man to obey (Dt. 11:27-28; 2 Thes. 3:14). The Bible gives us not only God‘s revelation about what He has done, is doing, and what He will do. It also gives us God‘s revelation about what we are to do. God alone is God, and His Word communicates to man as His creature made in His image. Man is a rational creature, capable of understanding God‘s language. God is the Creator, and we are His creatures. He tells us how we are to conduct our lives. He tells us this in ScriptureFinally, the Bible is filled with metaphors about itself that convey to us what itsrole is. 13Psalms 119:105, Jeremiah 23:29; Genesis 9:6; Mark 6:18; Jeremiah 13:16; Psalms 19:10, PageHebrews 4:12
  • 14. “Given by Inspiration” — the implication of theopneustos Charles e. Whisnant ( Gleaned from Jon Gleason) February 05, 2012 #5The fifth on Bibliology (the study of what the Scriptures are, and how they came to us) dealtwith the inspiration of the Scriptures, from II Timothy 3:16.Now I‘d like to consider two additional pieces of evidence as to its meaning.Form — AdjectiveTheopneustos is an adjective, used to give information about (or describe) a noun (―Scripture‖).―Breathed by God‖ or ―Given by inspiration‖ may sound like a verb (an action of God), but it isn‘t. Paul didn‘t use the verb pneo, ―to breathe‖, to describe action – the Holy Spirit rather guided him to use an adjective, describing the Scriptures. Though an action (breathing) is in view, the focus is not on the action of God, but on something about the Scriptures. If Paul wanted to draw our attention primarily to the action, he almost certainly would have used a verb. The ―adjectival discussion‖ by saying that theopneustos (―Breathed by God‖ or ―Given by inspiration of God‖) is an adjective describing the A) source B) nature and/or C) effects of the Scripture. The adjectival form gives no evidence as to whether one or more of these are in view, which one(s), or to what extent. Connotations: (1) in logic, the characteristic or set of characteristics that makes up the meaning of a term and thus defines the objects to which a term can be applied. (2) the implying or suggesting of an additional meaning for a word or phrase apart from the literal or main meaning. What is “connotation”? We might say it is an idea or meaning suggested by or associated with a word or thing, generally related but not identical to the explicit meaning of the word or thing A connotation is something that the word brings to mind, even if it isn‘t what the word means — and often, that is intentional on the part of the speaker or writer. He wants you to think, not just of the meaning of the word, but of the connotations, that other idea which the word brings to mind. o A few months ago, if you were on Wall Street in New York and heard someone talking about “99%”, they may have been talking about a great return on investment. Today, with the advent of the Occupy Wall Street crowd, if you heard someone on Wall Street call out ”99%” you would recognize it as probably being a political statement o In the Bible, when God breathes, things happen 14 Genesis 2:7, Job 33:4; Psalms 33:6; 104:30, John 3:6-8, John 20:22, Hebrews Page 4:12
  • 15. When God breathes into man, man begins to breathe (and goes on breathing). The same general sense is seen in the famous ―dry bones‖ passage in Ezekiel 37.The Word of God is living! It is not an empty, dead book. It is powerful, heart-exposing, livingand life-giving and life-changing. It is a fire and a rock-crushing hammer (Jeremiah 23:29). Faith(and thus life) comes by hearing, and hearing by the Word of God (Romans 10:17). The Bible has beenbreathed into by God, and it lives, and gives life. So I‘ll say this, and I‘ll set it off so no one misses it: Those who translated theopneustos for hundreds of years using the words “inspired” or “inspiration” weren’t just making stuff up. There was a very real basis in the connotations of the breath of God for the translational choice they made.I‘ll quote Arthur Pink, speaking just down the road in Falkirk in 1936: The word ―inspire‖ signifies to in-breathe, and breath is both the means and evidence of life; for as soon as a person ceases to breathe he is dead. The Word of God, then, is vitalized by the very life of God, and therefore it is a living Book. Men‘s books are like themselves—dying creatures; but God‘s Book is like Himself—it ―lives and abides forever‖ (1 Peter 1:23). There are life-giving connotations to the breath of God. There is an indisputable link between God‘s Word and life, both as to the nature of God‘s Word and its life-giving power (effect). II Timothy 3:16 (and specifically the Greek word theopneustos) stands beside Hebrews 4:12 and I Peter 1:23, a trio of towering monuments to the continuing, living, ever-enduring nature and power of God‘s Word. 2 Peter 1:20-21God breathed the Scriptures into existence and God breathed life and vitality intothe Scriptures.―That Book in Timothy’s Hand”? It was a living, powerful Book, with life breathed into it by God Almighty. He was not being challenged by Paul to preach a ―dying creature‖, to use Arthur Pink‘s words. He was to preach the rock-crushing hammer of God, the life-breathing words of the Spirit, the enduring fire of God‘s Word. It is the same, living, and life-giving, and life-changing. 15 If connotations mean anything, this is what theopneustos means for the Book in your hand Page
  • 16. “Given by Inspiration” — Three Useful Terms Charles e Whisnant February 11, 2012 #6“That Book in Your Hand” Inspiration matters to everyone, not just those with advanced theological degrees.―Real ministry‖ (non-Internet ministry) has intervened, and I won‘t be able to post all I intended to writefor today. So I‘ll just do part of it by talking about three useful terms.RevelationThe doctrine of Scripture embedded in the Reformed Biblical theology was crystallized in the seventeenth-century confessions: ―The Old Testament in Hebrew . . . and the New Testament in Greek . . . being immediatelyinspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as inall controversies of religion, the Church is finally to appeal unto them.‖And ―The whole counsel of God,concerning all things necessary for his own glory, man‘s salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set down inscripture, or by good and necessary consequences may be deduced from scripture; unto which nothing at any timeis to be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men.‖Certain propositions follow. The Bible as we have it is, in its original autographs, the Word of God. The Bibledoes not contain the word of God. It is the Word of God. By inspiration, the ultimate author of the Scriptures, theHoly Spirit, has determined that the very words of Scripture, in all their singularity and plurality, are the words ofGod. We hold, therefore, to the plenary, verbal, inspiration of the Scriptures. By virtue of their divine authorshipthe Scriptures are completely inerrant and authoritative and are the infallible rule of life and belief. As to theirauthority, the Scriptures are self-attesting, and as is true of all doctrines of Christian belief we hold to theScriptural doctrine of Scripture. ―All scripture is given by inspiration of God‖ (2 Tim. 3:16). ―Holy men of Godspake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost‖ (2 Peter 1:21). And the pages of holy writ are redolent with theclaim that ―Thus saith the Lord.‖ The providential preservation of the Scriptures means that in proper translationwe have at this time the Word of God. The canon of Scripture has been closed. Revelation has come to an end,and God has said his last word to man. God has nothing to say to man that he has not already said. But the Wordof God is to be mined for the full understanding of its doctrinal content and directives, and progressiveillumination thereby accrues to the Christian in his faithful submission to it.“Inscripturation Inspiration is the direct result of inscripturation- the work of the Holy Spirit by which he so guided the minds of the human authors and writers that they chose the precise words necessary to accurately reflect the exact truth God intended, all the while reflecting their own personality, writing style, vocabulary, and cultural context thus guaranteeing that this truth is accurately, inerrantly, and infallibly inscriptured. Rodney J. Decker. Is that process of writing down what God revealed so that we have the Scriptures. In many 16 cases, but not all, inscripturation is recording special revelation. Thus, when we read the book of Page Joel, we are reading the words which came directly from the Lord to the prophet Joel. The Bible is preeminently God’s written interpretation of His revelation in history.
  • 17. Second, the Bible is God’s inspired Word Third, the Bible is infallible Fourth, we accept the Bible on the ground that it is, in fact, the Word of God. Fifth, the Bible is authoritative. Finally, the Bible is filled with metaphors about itself that convey to us what its role is.Without such writing down (or ‗inscripturation‘), the account soon gets forgotten. Alternatively, withoutinscripturation, all accounts quickly degenerate into monstrous myths --whether ancient, or modernOnly inspired writings give us infallible information about ancient events.Immediate Inspiration These theologians used ―immediate inspiration‖ as distinct from theopneustos, ―inspiration‖ (though obviously very closely related), to focus attention on the action of God in the giving of the Scriptures. ―Immediate inspiration‖ describes what we see above in II Peter 1:20-21 — God moving men to write the words He wanted written. 1. Revelation refers to God’s work in making Himself (and other truths) known to man. 2. Inscripturation is the process by which parts of God’s revelation were recorded (written) in the Scriptures. 3. Immediate inspiration is the moving of the Spirit (II Peter 1:21) by which the Holy Spirit directed the process of inscripturation so that the Scripture record became that which it continues to be, God’s very Word – that which God wanted us to have. Jon GleasonOutline of Bibliology 1. The Bible as Revelation. (What is the content of the Bible?) 2. The Inspiration of the Bible. (How was the Bible written?) 3. The Authority of the Bible. (What weight does the Bible have for faith and practice?) 4. The Canonicity of the Bible. (How were the true books of the Bible determined?) 5. The Illumination of the Bible. (How can the Bible be understood?) 6. The Animation of the Bible. (What is the inherent quality of the Bible?) 7. The Interpretation of the Bible. (How is the Bible to be explained?) The Distinction of Revelation from Inspiration and Illumination 1. Revelation (Disclosure) 1. The basic idea here is a disclosure of spiritual truth 2. It emphasizes source and content of truth 3. Revelation is both past and present 2. Inspiration (Recording) 1. The basic idea is a recording of spiritual truth 2. It emphasizes source and composition of truth 3. It guarantees accuracy and inerrancy 4. Inspiration is past 3. Illumination (Understanding) 17 1. The basic idea is an understanding of spiritual truth 2. It emphasizes appropriation of truth Page 3. Illumination is past and present, with emphasis on the present
  • 18. The Reliability of the Bible Texts “Given by Inspiration” — theopneustos, Context Revisited Some Discussion of Copies and Translations February 19 2012 # 7 and 8 Charles e Whisnant, TeacherGod specifically endorsed copies of the Scriptures. Deuteronomy 17:18-19:A copy, unlike the inscripturated original, can contain errors. This is because God never saidthat ‖immediate inspiration‖ by the Spirit (if you didn‘t read the last post for definitions, stop now andgo read it!) applied to anything except the original writing of the Scriptures. II Peter 1:21 tells us thatthe Holy Spirit moved holy men to write the Scriptures. It says nothing about copies. We‘ll look later atthe fact that God preserves His Word, so the fact that some copyists made mistakes isn‘t a problem forus.The only thing the original autographs had which a copy doesn’t have is a divine guarantee of100% accuracy. Copies have never had that guarantee — but when they are accurate, they havejust as much value as the original autograph.God specifically endorsed the translation of the Scriptures in Romans 16:25-27.We return briefly to II Peter 1, including verse 19 this time:Some key points about this passage:Thus, theologians have always said that ―immediate inspiration‖ (some have used the term―inscripturation‖) is an action of God (described in II Peter 1:21) which He carried out only in the giving 18of the original autographs, and it applies neither to copies or translations. This is what Christians havealways believed. The Bible says nothing of any ―re-inspiration‖, a second direct act by God of Pageimmediate inspiration, in copies or translations.
  • 19. Revisiting the Context of theopneustosTimothy would have read II Timothy chapters three and four without chapter and verse breaks. I‘ll givethe last two verses of chapter three and the first two of chapter four the way he would have read them:The main flow of the passage could be boiled down like this: ―All Scripture is theopneustos and profitable, so I charge you to preach it.‖ The Word that Timothy is to preach is the Word that is theopneustos and profitable, The second half of 4:2 matches the second half of 3:16 in meaning and even somewhat in wording (both verses refer to ―doctrine‖ and ―reproof‖).A Logical Progression Based on II Timothy 3:16-4:2How can Timothy’s translation-in-hand be theopneustos if translations are not “immediatelyinspired?” There is only one answer: theopneustos is not the same as what theologians have called ―immediate inspiration.‖ It is not primarily talking about the moving of the Holy Spirit described in II Peter 1:21. It is, rather, focused on what came into existence as a result of that moving – the divine quality or nature of the Scriptures. The context virtually demands that we accept what the connotations also told us. This word, which our translators rendered “given by inspiration of God,” is referring not primarily to the divine origin of the Scriptures, but rather to the current divine nature of the Scriptures which flowed out of that divine origin.The God who breathed the Scriptures into existence also breathed life into them, and they became aliving and life-giving Book. That living divine quality lives on even in an accurate translation, which iswhy, returning to Romans 16:25-27, a translation is able to (as Scripture) make the Gospel known to thenations that they might have eternal life.Once we recognize what both the connotations and the context of 3:16-4:2 are telling us, thattheopneustos is talking primarily about the living divine nature of the Scriptures, other things fall intoplace.When Paul wrote that the Scriptures are theopneustos (―given by inspiration of God‖), he was talkingabout ―That Book in Your Hand,‖ about what it is today because of the way God made it. God breathedlife into that Book, and thus it is and remains forever a living and life-giving Book. The divine qualitiesthat He breathed into it live on even in that translation in your hand, just as they lived in Timothy‘s 19Greek translation. It still lives and gives life today, just as it always has. Page
  • 20. 8 Some Discussion of Copies and Translations Does It Matter Which Bible Translation You Use? February 26, 2012 Adult Bible Study, Rivers of Joy Baptist Church, Minford, Ohio #9 Charles e. Whisnant, Internet Researcher, Google Image and Google Engine Enthusiast,1A GOD EXPECTS US TO TRANSLATE SCRIPTURE INTO ALL LANGUAGESGod specifically endorsed copies of the Scriptures Deuteronomy 17:18-19: 18 And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites: 19 And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them: A copy, unlike the inscripturated original, can contain errors. This is because God never said that ”immediate inspiration” by the Spirit (if you didn’t read the last post for definitions, stop now and go read it!) applied to anything except the original writing of the Scriptures. II Peter 1:21 tells us that the Holy Spirit moved holy men to write the Scriptures. It says nothing about copies. We’ll look later at the fact that God preserves His Word, so the fact that some copyists made mistakes isn’t a problem2A DOES IT MATTER WHICH BIBLE TRANSLATION YOU USE?3A DO MODERN BIBLE TRANSLATIONS REPRESENT ORIGINAL TEXT?3A Translations are like theologies: Human attempts to express the Divine Word.4A CHOOSING A BIBLE TRANSLATION:5A DEFINITIONS: TRANSLATIONS: “A word, phrase, or text in another language that has a meaning equivalent to that of the original. 20 FORMAL EQUIVALENCE: “Word for word” As much as possible. Words, figures of speech, and Page even the sentence structure of the original language.
  • 21. DYNAMIC EQUIVALENCE: “Emphasis on reproducing the functional meaning of the ancient words with freedom to rearrange the order of the words (syntax) in the target language. Thought for thought. Thought-for-thought. Sometimes passages become more interpretation than translations. PARAPHRASE: “Emphasis is on expressing the meaning in contemporary language, with numerous additional words. It’s not a translations. THOUGHT-FOR-THOUGHT: Attempts to convey the original author’s intended meaning without interpreting the text beyond what is necessary. WORD-FOR-WORD: The translators do their best to find English equivalent for a given word in the original language. The method produces the least interpreted text. There is going to be some need to interpretation. VERBAL EQUIVALENCE: “Emphasis is on reproducing the modern English equivalent of the ancient words, with tendency to use same word order as the ancient language. HYBRID VERBAL: “Equivalence with dynamic balance and common language. MASORETIC: “The most widely used Hebrew text of the Old Testament” TEXTUS RECEPTUS: “Received Text” 1550 edition of the Greek NT used by most translators before 1900. TRANSLATION ORIENTATIONS: The direction in which a translation thoughts, interest or tendencies are.6A CHARTS: 21 Page
  • 22. 7A WHY WOULD YOU WANT TO USE DIFFERENT TRANSLATIONS? HOW WOULD IT HELP IN BIBLE STUDY?8A WHICH BIBLE VERSION IS SUPERIOR? How do you determine a good Bible to read ? Let’s take a look at how translations are done. I heard a sermon in which the speaker criticized certain ―meaning-based‖ Bible versions and promoted ―literal‖ translations as ―more the word of God.‖ 22 Page
  • 23. Some Discussion of Copies and Translations THE BOOK YOU HOLD IN YOUR HAND: THE WORD OF GOD March 04, 2012 Series No. 10God specifically endorsed copies of the Scriptures. Deuteronomy 17:18-19: 18 And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites: 19 And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them:A copy, unlike the inscripturated original, can contain errors. This is because God never saidthat ‖immediate inspiration‖ by the Spirit (if you didn‘t read the last post for definitions, stop now andgo read it!) applied to anything except the original writing of the Scriptures. II Peter 1:21 tells us thatthe Holy Spirit moved holy men to write the Scriptures. It says nothing about copies. We‘ll look later atthe fact that God preserves His Word, so the fact that some copyists made mistakes isn‘t a problem forus. TranslationsGod specifically endorsed the translation of the Scriptures in Romans 16:25-27. God commanded that the Gospel of Christ, by the Scriptures, be made known to every nation. That makes it necessary to translate the Scriptures into those languages. This is a simple matter of logic. You can‘t make the Gospel known by the Scriptures to someone who can‘t understand the Scriptures because they are in the wrong language. So if you are going to obey the commandment of God, there has to be translation. Just as no Scripture speaks of God‘s action that I‘m calling ―immediate inspiration‖ as happening in copies, so also there is nothing that says it happens in translation.We return briefly to II Peter 1, including verse 19 this time: 19 We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: 20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.Some key points about this passage: 1. Peter is writing in Greek, and almost certainly not writing exclusively to Jews. Not all of his readers would have known Hebrew. 2. When he talks about Scriptures from the “old time”, he is talking about the Old Testament, written in Hebrew. 3. Therefore, he is talking about the Scriptures to people who, at least in part, are using translations. 4. He tells those people that they have “a sure word of prophecy.” He does not in any way undermine 23 their confidence in “That Book in Their Hands.” 5. Verse 21, though it says holy men “spake”, refers to what I call “inscripturation,” because verse 20 tells Page us Peter is talking about “prophecy of the Scripture.”
  • 24. 6. In discussing the “moving of the Holy Spirit” in verse 21 (what I’m calling “immediate inspiration”), he applies it only to inscripturation, the speaking (and by implication writing) by the prophets of the Word of God. 7. He says nothing about immediate inspiration in regard to the copies or the act of translation — nor does any other Scripture. 8. If anyone was ever going to apply immediate inspiration to the work of translation, it would have been Peter, for he was talking about immediate inspiration to people who were using a translation. MASORETS Is Our Copy of the Bible a Reliable Copy of the Original?A copy, unlike the inscripturated original, can contain errors. This is because God never said that ”immediateinspiration” by the Spirit (if you didn’t read the last post for definitions, stop now and go read it!) applied toanything except the original writing of the Scriptures. II Peter 1:21 tells us that the Holy Spirit moved holy men towrite the Scriptures. It says nothing about copies.By transmission, we mean the process by which the biblical documents were copied and recopied through theages from the original autographs down to the age of the printing press. Were the handwritten copies and thecopies of copies kept reasonably pure, so that we have a Bible that, practically speaking, reflects accurately thewords of the original autographs?THE Hebrew Scriptures were completed by the end of the fifth century B.C.E. During the centuries thatfollowed, Jewish scholars, notably the Sopherim and later the Masoretes, proved to be meticulouscustodians of the Hebrew text. However, the oldest Bible books go back to the days of Moses andJoshua, a thousand years before the time of the Sopherim. The material upon which those books werewritten was perishable; so the scrolls must have been copied many times. What is known about thescribal profession in that early period? Were there skilled copyists in ancient Israel?The oldest Bible manuscripts available today are parts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, some of which date backto the third and second centuries B.C.E. ―Earlier copies of any part of the Bible are denied us,‖ explains 24Professor Alan R. Millard, a scholar of Near Eastern languages and archaeology. He adds: ―Neighboringcultures can show how ancient scribes worked, and such knowledge can aid evaluation of the Hebrew Pagetext and its history.‖
  • 25. Ancient Scribes and the WORD OF GODTHE EARLY SCRIBAL PROFESSION A PAPYRUS DOCUMENT 25 Matthew 350A.D Page
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  • 28. THE BOOK YOU HOLD IN YOUR HAND THE BIBLE EVEN IF IT’S A MODERN TRANSLATION? Why I Changed My Opinion on Translations Charles e Whisnant, March 11, 2012 #2012.1.11WHAT CAUSES A PERSON TO DESIRE TO KNOW GOD’S WORD REALLY? WHAT WOULD CAUSE A PERSON TO USE TRANSLATIONS?People often ask me, “Which translation is best?” Or they would say “What Bibleshould I be reading?” I used to respond, “The King James, of course.” I would say,“Why do you need another Bible if you have the good old KJV?” I didn’t think it was atranslation.SO WHEN DID YOU GET OVER THAT IDEA THAT THE KJV WAS NOT THE ONLYBIBLE? I have argued that 2 Timothy 3:16 applies to ―All Scripture,‖ not just the original Greek and Hebrew manuscripts, and that it has nothing to do with how Scripture was written, but has everything to do with how God speaks to us through Scripture to make it profitable, meaningful, and inspiring in our lives.THE QUESITON SHOULD BE: WHY DID YOU CHANGE YOUR MIND? WHAT CAUSED YOU TO CHANGEYOUR MIND?” Don’t you feel guilty by changing your mind? 28 Page
  • 29. THEN SHOULD WE FEEL GUILTY IN HAVING ANOTHER KIND OF BIBLE IN OUR HOME?SO WHY DO YOU BELIEVE THAT TRANSLATIONS ARE OKAY TO READ?1A WHEN A PERSON HAS A DESIRE TO KNOW GOD’S WORD REALLY?2A WHEN I UNDERSTOOD THAT I WAS TO UNDERSTAND THE BIBLE3A WHEN I REALIZED THAT THE BIBLE WAS GOD’S WORD AND GOD WANTED US TO KNOW HIM AND LEARN OF HIM AND UNDERSTAND WHAT WE WERE READING.4A WHEN LEARNING ABOUT THE PROCESS OF BIBLE TRANSLATIONS.5A WHEN LEARNING THERE WERE OTHERS WHO UNDERSTOOD THE MEANING OF THE BIBLE.6A WHEN LEARNING TO GET OVER THE ABUSE OF FELLOW PREACHERS ABOUT MY DESIRE TO LEARN THE WORD OF GOD FROM OTHER NON BAPTIST PASTORS, AND LEARN FROM STUDYING THE WORD.7A WHEN I REALIZED THAT AS A PASTOR-TEACHER ONE SHOULD PREACH AND TEACH EXPOSITORY. THAT IS TO EXPLAIN TO THE PEOPLE WHAT THE BIBLE SAID, BOOK BY BOOK, CHAPTER BY CHAPTER, VERSE BY VERSE, AND YES WORD BY WORD,8A WHEN LEARNING THAT ALL THE RHETORIC ABOUT TRANSLATIONS WAS FALSE9A WHEN LEARNING TO MY SURPISE THAT THE KJV WAS A TRANSLATION IN THE FIRST PLACE To my surprise the KJV translators used the Wycliffe, and Bishops translations.10A WHEN THE WORD BIBLE WAS USED “I HAVE A BIBLE”:”THE IDEA WAS IT MUST BE A KJV OR IT IS NOT THE BIBLE. When I realized that a Bible doesn’t mean it is a KJV only. I was shocked by that news.SO ARE YOU SAYING THAT THE BIBLE YOU HOLD IN YOUR HAND IS THE WORD OFGOD AND IT MIGHT BE A NIV, NASV, ESV OR RSV OR …..? Bible translations are actually a practical application of the truth Paul was presenting in 2 Timothy 3:16. 29Bible Translations are one of the ways God illuminates Scripture to us. Translations are one of the waysGod makes Scripture inspire us to believe differently, act differently, view life differently. Page
  • 30. IS THE BIBLE THE WORD OF GOD Charles e Whisnant, March 81, 2012 #2012.1.12 WHAT CAUSES A PERSON TO DESIRE TO KNOW GOD’S WORD REALLY? Is the Bible Really the Words of God and Powerful Today? 1A Truthfulness as to Restoration of the Original 2A Exactness in Prophecy: Isaiah 44:24-45:4 3A Precision in Science: Job 26: 7, Isaiah 40:22 4A Accuracy in History: 5A Correctness in Honesty and Candor: Matthew 17:18-20; 20:20-28 6A Truth in Advice: Proverbs 2:1-9 The Scriptures — Inspired or Expired? Defining theopneustos 11 Timothy 3:15-17 God breathed the Scriptures into existence and He breathed life into the Scriptures. They are divine in origin and divine in nature, a living, life-giving, and life-changing Book.The act by which God gave the Scriptures (historically called ―immediate inspiration‖) is not the fullmeaning of theopneustos. The meaning goes beyond etymology, and includes the connotations of thebreath of God. The focus is not primarily on the divine origin of the Bible, but on the divine natureresulting from that divine origin. 30 This divine nature or quality is present in an accurate copy. The nature of the Scriptures resides in the words and concepts, not in paper and ink. Thus, a completely accurate copy is as fully Page inspired as the original, even though it was not ―immediately inspired.‖
  • 31. An Unfortunate TeachingThe Latin root ”spiro” from which ”inspiration” is derived means ”breathe.” We still see this root in words like ―respiratory.‖ ‖Inspire‖ (though in modern English it has acquired other connotations) meant ―breathe into,‖ while ―ex-spire / expire‖ (which also now has other meanings) meant ―breathe out.‖For centuries, theopneustos was understood to refer to both the Divine origin (historical) AND theDivine nature (current) of the Scriptures. We see this in both the history of translations and intheological writing. (If you have read my prior posts but not the summary page linked above, this isdiscussed near the bottom.) Thus, theopneustos was translated with some form of the expression―inspired by God‖ (breathed into) in every major translation until 1970. Benjamin B. Warfield — A Word Redefined In the late 19th century, Benjamin Warfield (eventually of Princeton Theological Seminary) changed the focus. Writing in 1881 (with A.A. Hodge), Warfield responded to heretical challenges to the authority and inerrancy of Scripture. However, as he focused on the theological problem, he redefined theopneustos (inspiration) to mean ‖immediate inspiration.‖ The New Testament Introduction wrote of theopneustos: Autographs, Amanuenses and Restricted Inspiration Therefore, inspiration may be applied legitimately only to the autographs of Scripture. o By Greg L. Bahnsen http://www.cmfnow.com/articles/pt006.htm Does it Matter? Truth always matters, of course, but this has pastoral implications. If I preach Warfield‘s teaching on inspiration as the whole meaning of theopneustos, I have stolen II Timothy 3:16 from the people in our church. I merely describe something that happened historically, rather than affirming their faith in ―That Book in Your Hand.‖ Paul’s entire purpose was to affirm the value of Timothy’s Book-in-hand. He didn‘t include the ―only in the originals‖ caveat that is usually included today. It simply isn‘t there in II Timothy 3:16 — and if I were to teach it, it would weaken, rather than strengthen, the hearers‘ faith in ‖That Book in Their Hands.‖ God’s people have been taught by His Spirit to recognize the Scriptures as a Book that is divine in nature as well as origin. When we redefine ―inspired‖ we are effectively teaching, whether we mean to or not, that their Book-in-hand is not divine — it isn‘t inspired, only the originals are. Their Book is merely man‘s best effort, copying and translating through the centuries, to try to give them something that approximates the original inspired text. Can anyone think, reading II Timothy 3:10-4:8, that this is really what Paul intended to convey — that God did something really good in the past, but we don‘t have it any longer? What God did in inspiration only applies to the originals, Timothy, certainly not to your copies and translations. Can anyone read that Scripture passage and think that is really the force of what 31 Paul meant to teach? Too many of our theologians have gone astray, turning a passage affirming Page
  • 32. your Book-in-hand into a teaching that 32 Page