The first column gives the results for the regression coefficients (corresponding to the parameter estimates on a log scale):
A NOVEL MOTIVATOR FOR ENGAGING PARK NEIGHBORS IN ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION PROJECTS Carin E. Vadala & Robert D. Bixler: Clemson University Terry L. Robison: Cleveland Metroparks
Introduction Issues of flooding, erosion, pesticides washed into the river, invasive species and nuisance wildlife Residents whose property is either adjacent or near park boundaries can play a role in reducing these problems Residents can help slow storm water and reduce flooding and erosion by installing rain gardens and rain barrels on their property.
Problem Statement Since altruistic environmental attitudes have fallen short as explanations for Environmentally Responsible Behaviors (ERB), self-interests will be used to further predict ERB. An understanding of stakeholder’s self-interests, intrinsic satisfaction and competence may help urban park reserves construct a situation where ERB becomes the most reasonable choice.
First Generation ERB Self report (Cordano, Welcomer & Scherer, 2003; Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig & Jones, 2000; Geller & Lasley, 1985; Noe & Snow, 1990) Moral norm activation of altruism (Guagano, Stern & Dietz, 1995; Schwartz, 1973) Attitudes, subjective norms and intentions to behave(Azjen, 1991) Self report and observation (Corral-Verdugo, 1997)
Second Generation ERB Value-Belief-Norm, moving beyond measuring attitudes and behavioral intentions (Stern, Dietz, Kalof & Guagnano, 1995; Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano & Kalof, 1999) Multiply determined motivations and different types of environmental outcomes (DeYoung, 2000; Stern & Dietz, 1994) Typology of four types of environmental behavior and four sets of causal variables (Stern, 2000)
Behavior Typology Types of environmental behavior environmental activism, non-activist behaviors in a public sphere, private-sphere environmentalism, and other environmentally significant behaviors Four sets of causal variables attitudinal factors, contextual forces, personal capabilities, and habit or routine (Stern, 2000)
Evaluating Behavior Outcome-based measures Response to incentives, coercion and reinforcement Context-based measures Behavior is result of context, setting or environmental motivation Useful for measuring whether ERB stems from intrinsic motivation and non-environmental motivations (De Young, 2000)
Motivations ERB driven by self-interest, intrinsic satisfaction, frugality, direct participation, luxury and access to novel things, competence Avoidance of situations where people are not competent Knowing and doing are two different things (Corral-Verdugo, 1997) (De Young, 2000)
Methods Two-phase design Focus group Survey methods 750 Residents selected from seven urban park reserves in Northeastern Ohio, usable sample of 686 Modified Dillman approach yielded a return of 364 surveys, response rate 53%
Methods Created a variable to identify whether participants enjoyed working with their hands (alpha=.86) Two variables measured concern for issues in the urban park reserves Concern for pesticides and fertilizers, plants spreading (alpha=.89) Concern for frequent and excessive flooding (alpha=.88) Enjoyment of gardening (alpha=.78) Logistic regression
Results Logistic Regression coefficient **p<.05, *p<.1 (odds ratio in parentheses)
Hands-on personality Rain garden Low value: 21% more likely to install a rain garden Average value: 26% more likely to install a rain garden High value: 35% more likely to install a rain garden Rain barrel- not predictive
Concern for pesticides Rain garden Least concerned: 19% probability to install a rain garden Average concern: 27% probability to install a rain garden Highly concerned: 38% probability to install a rain garden Rain barrel
Least concerned: 23% probability to install a rain barrel
Average on concern: 31% probability to install a rain barrel
Highly concerned: 39% probability to install a rain barrel
Gardening for recreation Rain garden Least prefer gardening: 15% probability to install a rain garden Average interest in gardening: 28% probability to install a rain garden High interest in gardening: 45% probability to install a rain garden Rain barrel Least prefer gardening: 18% probability to install a rain barrel Average interest in garden: 31% probability to install a rain barrel High interest in gardening: were 48% probability to install a rain barrel
Summary of results Results strongly suggest that environmental concerns and enjoyment of the leisure activity gardening motivate an interest in installing rain barrels and rain gardens. (De Young, 2000; Stern & Dietz, 1994) De Young and Stern’s notion of multiply determined behaviors is supported by the lack of predictive power of flooding as an environmental concern and the self interest in gardening. (DeYoung, 2000; Stern, 2000)
Implications Participation in (some) outdoor recreation positively associated with environmental concern, social worlds would overlap (Teisl & O’brien, 2003; Unruh, 1980; Choi, Loomis & Ditton, 1994) Foster leisure interests (IsoAhola, 1979; Tinsley & Tinsley, 1986) Practitioners should analyze desired ERB in terms of attitudes, knowledge, self interest behaviors and related constraints.