Good afternoon, everyone, today I would like to talk about some sustainability issues in UKOER projects and how we think we would develop a sustainable OER ecosystem in HE
Clayton Christensen developed a powerful framework for evaluating innovations and choosing business strategies to respond to technology change. He divides innovatios into two categories, “ disruptive ” and “ sustaining ” , based on whether or not the new products or services meet the new metrics. According to Clayton, The disruptive innovation theory explains why organisations struggle with certain kinds of innovation and how organisations can predictably succeed in innovation. Plugging a disruptive innovation into an existing business model never results in transformation of the model; instead, the existing model co-opts the innovation to sustain how it operates.
Noncomsumers – lack for the ability, wealth, or access to a product or service Undershot Customers – consume a product or service but are frustrated with its limitations Overshot Customers – stop paying for further improvements to a product or service. Christensen distinguishes between &quot;low-end disruption &quot; which targets customers who do not need the full performance valued by customers at the high end of the market and &quot;new-market disruption&quot; which targets customers who have needs that were previously unserved by existing incumbents
It is expected that this professionally organised infrastructure of academic and scholarly resources in the UK will provide new opportunities for innovation in Higher Education.
there were no entry requirements and it was free to any interested non-credit participant. Credit participants paid a fee. Numbers were not limited. a free platform for anyone to learn using the internet. over 2,000 people have signed up for this super-sized open education course. to create a learning community and support life long networked learning to connect and collaborate with other learners, and to engage learners in the learning process.
All P2PU courses are free and based on materials and resources openly available on the web. Anyone can volunteer to run a course. Groups of peers come together to learn course materials collaboratively. The P2PU offers scheduled “ courses ” that run for 6 weeks and cover university-level topics. Learning takes place in small groups of 8-14 students. Each course package contains the syllabus, study materials and a schedule
augmenting and adding value to&quot; existing provision
an online open course for Master students in China developed by IEC at Bolton free OERs (content, activities, self-assessment) payment for support time, assessment & accreditation Students from partner Chinese institutions gain credits
What emerges is an ecosystem of education exstitutions-systems that don't draw resources into them, but rather distribute and link them to facilitate learning the disruption of higher education at public universities will likely need to be managed at the level of state systems of higher education, not at the level of the individual institutions, which will struggle to evolve. And if private universities are able to navigate this disruptive transition, they will have to do so by creating autonomous business units.
Figure 1 illustrates OERs/Open Education provide opportunities for implementing sustaining/ disruptive innovation in higher education institutions to improve efficiencies and provide better service to individuals and connecting learners and learning communities., e.g. reduction in cost and improvements in quality. A content infrastructure needs to be established through developing OERs that support informal and formal education and catalyse innovations in higher education to explore how best to achieve self-sustainable OER ecosystems.
Disruptive innovation and OERs/Open Education in HE
Li Yuan (JISC CETIS) Stephen Powell Disruptive innovation and OERs/Open Education in HE Institute for Educational Cybernetics, University of Bolton
Disruptive Innovation Theory <ul><li>Sustaining innovation – to improve the existing system. The change is typically slow and tends to result in marginal improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive innovation - to create an entirely new market, typically by lowering price or designing for a different set of consumers or different needs of existing customers. </li></ul><ul><li>(Christensen, 1997) </li></ul>
Potential Customer Groups <ul><li>Non-consumers – lack for the ability, wealth, or access to a product or service </li></ul><ul><li>Undershot Customers – consume a product or service but are frustrated with its limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Overshot Customers – stop paying for further improvements to a product or service. </li></ul>
The progression of sustaining & disruptive innovation Undershot Customers Overshot Customers Noncustomer / Nonconsuming Context Time Active Disruption Begins Sustaining innovation Disruptive innovation
Definition of Open Educational Resources <ul><li>“ Digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research ” </li></ul><ul><li>OECD, 2007 </li></ul>OERs and implications for HE
OER/Open Education Initiatives MIT OpenCourseWare
<ul><li>“ The UK must have a core of open access learning resources organised in a coherent way to support on-line and blended learning by all higher education institutions and to make it more widely available in non-HE environments ” . </li></ul><ul><li>(Cooke, 2008) </li></ul>Support innovation in HE OERs and implications for HE
OERs and implications for HE – Content as infrastructure Higher Education OERs/ OpenEd Curriculum Accreditation Learners’ Support
Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) OER/Open Education Initiatives
OERu OER/Open Education Initiatives The OER university concept. Adapted from Taylor 2007.
An Open Course at Bolton: Design learning for 21 century OER/Open Education Initiatives
Business Model Innovation in Institutions for OERs/Open Education Noncustomer / Nonconsuming Context Time Undershot Customers Overshot Customers Business models for adopting OERs/Open Education in HE Sustaining innovation Disruptive innovation
Institutions Learning community Individuals Sustaining /disruptive innovations Developing a sustainable OER ecosystem Create, Use, reuse, remix… Strategies and policy, New business model Learning support Accreditation … Community of practice, sharing, … Supporting formal and informal education OERs/OpenEd