Cybernetics and Education: Insights from the Viable System Model 运用活性系统模型去思考控制论与教育 Professor Oleg Liber Institute for Educ...
Overview of this presentation <ul><li>The Institute for Educational Cybernetics </li></ul><ul><li>The Joint Information Sy...
What we do… <ul><li>Educational software development  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RELOAD, Learning Design tools (RECOURSE) </li>...
The Institute for Educational Cybernetics (IEC) <ul><li>Cybernetics (from Wikipedia): </li></ul><ul><li>“ the interdiscipl...
The Education System was designed for a world that is passing   现有的教育体系是为正在逐渐成为过去的世界而设计的
Reducing knowledge to subjects, losing the benefits of inter-disciplinarity  把知识压缩成不同的学科 , 失去了各学科相互渗透的优势   Physics Chemist...
The education system assumes printing as the dominant technology  现有的教育体系中,印刷仍是占主导地位的技术
The practice of education is based on tradition 教育实践是基于传统的模式
The traditional focus of education has been to transmit knowledge  传统教育致力于知识的传播
The assumption of education has been stability in society 教育 认为本社会是固定不变 <ul><li>Industrial society </li></ul><ul><li>Predi...
But the world is changing 但是世界正在改变 <ul><li>Post-industrial society </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Techn...
Education needs to respond to the changing needs of learners and society   教育应对变化的学生和社会的需求做出反应 <ul><li>High level skills <...
Education needs to exploit the new opportunities afforded by technology   教育需要探索技术所提供的新机会 <ul><li>Learning Resources </li>...
Traditional Educational structures are not suited to this <ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Why is it so difficult to change old structures and exploit new technologies?  要改变旧的结构和探索新技术 , 为什么如此困难 ? ? Timetable? Clas...
We need to model existing educational processes and structures in order to redesign them successfully:  The Viable System ...
The concerns of the teacher are not the same as those of the learners 教师所关注的与学生的是不同的 Environment Teacher Planning and mana...
The concerns of the learners are not the same as those of the teacher 学生所关注与老师的也是不同的 Environment . Is this right for me? D...
Teaching is concerned with the planning and management of learning activities 教学所关注的是计划和管理学习活动 Environment Learning activi...
Pedagogy: engagement between teacher and learners 教学方法:教师和学生之间的交互作用 Environment Learner cohort Teacher Planning and manage...
Balancing variety: homeostatic loops 平衡多样性:自我平衡的循环 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. Variety (Env)...
Managing Variety in the traditional classroom 在传统的教室里对多样性的管理 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. 教师缩...
Managing variety for resource-based learning 资源为主的学习对多样性的管理 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. 教师贡献...
Managing Variety for Inter-disciplinary, Inquiry-based learning 跨学科的探究式学习对多样性的管理 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and...
Where technology systems and interventions impact 技术和干预的影响所在 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. VLE...
The Viable System Model is recursive 活力系统模型的递归性 State The State Education State Dept Programme State Institution Dept. Sta...
控制论模型 Cybernetic modelling <ul><ul><li>Encourages examination of where and how different technologies affect teaching and ...
Managerial, operational and environmental varieties diffusing through an institutional system, tend to equate; they should...
Links and References <ul><li>Beer, S (1985) Designing the System for Organisations. Chichester, Wiley </li></ul><ul><li>IE...
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Cybernetics and Education: Insights from the Viable System Model

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  • 内容概要: 教育控制论学院 英国联合信息系统委员会 英国教育技术,互用性 &amp; 标准中心 将控制论模型作为设计教育技术干预的方法
  • 我们所从事的研究项目和主要工作: 开发教学软件 如,可重用的网络教学课件制作和传递软件 ( RE-useable eLearning Object Authoring &amp; Delivery ); 教学设计工具( ReCourse ) 探索新的教学方法 如:以跨学科,探究式为主的学习 研究课题 如:为欧洲终生学习提供技术基础设施的 TENComptence 项目 教育技术, 互用性 &amp; 标准中心 由 JISC 资助,支持英国大学在教育技术方面的创新和技术标准的应用
  • 现有的教育体系是为正在逐渐成为过去的世界而设计的
  • 把知识压缩成不同的学科 , 失去了各学科相互渗透的优势
  • 教育实践是基于传统的模式
  • 传统教育致力于知识的传播
  • 社会对教育的期待是固定 工业社会 可预测的就业机会 缓慢的革新 经济 贸易 国际关系
  • 但是世界正在改变 后工业社会 全球化 技术和迅猛革新 同步交流 新的贸易关系 国际关系 许多不同类型的课堂 寻求有效的教学方法 即时反馈 网络教学能实现这些吗 ? So many classroom types Struggle for effective teaching and learning Immediacy Can this be realised online?
  • 教育应该对正在变化着的学生需求和社会需求做出反应 高水平的技能 学以致用 发现信息的能力 解决问题 创新 交流 合作 团队工作
  • 教育需要去探索技术所提供的新机会 学习资源 学习机会 合作工具 模式化工具 研究工具 全球共同体 个性化学习环境
  • 传统教育结构不能适应这些变化 大学 . 大学 学院 . 与用人方的合作关系 学科系 部 . 跨学科 学习的科目 . 个人档案 传授 知识 . 探究式学习 考试 / 作业 . 新的评估形式 课堂教学 . 合作空间 课程表 . 灵活的计划
  • 学生 课程表 教师 课堂 讲座 工作场所 家 网络 合作
  • 教师所关注的与学生的是不同的 如:教什么,新知识,用人单位的要求,材料,工具,怎样理解学生,教学思想,用不同的方法去解释,对学习活动的建议和考核的思路。 Version A – White Background Presentation overall Title: GillSans-Light, 24pt – Colour: R:0 G:36 B:125 Date, venue and presenter name: GillSans, 20pt - Colour: R:0 G:36 B:125 Text for text slide: GillSans, 28pt – Colour: R:0 G:36 B:125, Line Spacing: 1, Before Paragraph: 0.5, After Paragraph: 0 Sub title for text slide: GillSans-Light, 28pt – Colour: R:0 G:36 B:125, Line Spacing: 1, Before Paragraph: 0.5, After Paragraph: 0 Main copy text: GillSans, 19pt - Colour: R:0 G:36 B:125, Line Spacing: 1, Before Paragraph: 0.5, After Paragraph: 0 Bullet pointed text: 19pt - Colour: R:0 G:36 B:125, Line Spacing: 0.8, Before Paragraph: 0.5, After Paragraph: 0
  • 学生所关注与老师的也是不同的 如:这对我合适吗?我懂了吗?我所做的够了吗?谁能帮助我?我到哪里能找到学习材料?我有时间吗?我得到了我所想要学的吗?下一步是什么?
  • 教学所关注的是计划和管理学习活动
  • 教学方法:教师和学生之间的交互作用 但是:环境的的多样性 &gt;&gt; 多样性学生 &gt;&gt; 教师的多样性
  • 平衡多样性:自我平衡的循环
  • 在传统的教室里对多样性的管理 教师缩减了教学内容,教师缩减了学生的需求
  • 资源为主的学习对多样性的管理 教师贡献和管理学习资源 教师提供学习资源以满足学生个体的需求
  • 跨学科的探究式学习对多样性的管理 教师选择和推荐资源 教师根据学生个体的需要给与辅导 学生在特定的学习环境中相互支持 学生搜索和选择相关的资源
  • 活力系统模型是递归的
  • 控制论模型 鼓励探究不同的技术在何处,以何种方式影响教学的 能够指导教学设计 是教育体系研究的另一种方法 指明技术在哪些方面仍然需要发展 能够指导重新设计大学 能够告知大学在社会中角色的转变
  • 在一个制度化的系统中,管理方面, 操作方面和环境方面的变化的传播,往往是相同的;应该通过设计,使这些变化对人员和成本的影响降到最低。( Beer , 1979 ) 在一个教育系统中,教学方法,学习方式和环境的变化的传播往往是相同的;应该通过设计,使这些变化对人员和成本的影响降到最低。
  • Cybernetics and Education: Insights from the Viable System Model

    1. 1. Cybernetics and Education: Insights from the Viable System Model 运用活性系统模型去思考控制论与教育 Professor Oleg Liber Institute for Educational Cybernetics University of Bolton, UK 英国博尔顿大学教育控制论学院院长,奥莱格 . 理博教授
    2. 2. Overview of this presentation <ul><li>The Institute for Educational Cybernetics </li></ul><ul><li>The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Technology, Interoperability & Standards (CETIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Cybernetic Modelling as an approach to designing educational technology intervention </li></ul><ul><li>教育控制论学院 </li></ul><ul><li>英国联合信息系统委员会 </li></ul><ul><li>英国教育技术,互用性 & 标准中心 (CETIS) </li></ul><ul><li>将控制论模型作为设计教育技术干预的方法 </li></ul>
    3. 3. What we do… <ul><li>Educational software development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RELOAD, Learning Design tools (RECOURSE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop innovative pedagogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-disciplinary inquiry-based learning (IDIBL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. TENCompetence – developing a technical infrastructure for lifelong learning in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability and Standards (CETIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting innovation in UK universities and colleges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by JISC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>开发教学软件 </li></ul><ul><li>如,可重用的网络教学课件制作和传递软件 ( RE-useable eLearning Object Authoring & Delivery ); 教学设计工具( ReCourse ) </li></ul><ul><li>探索新的教学方法 </li></ul><ul><li>如:以跨学科,探究式为主的学习 </li></ul><ul><li>研究课题 </li></ul><ul><li>如:为欧洲终生学习提供技术基础设施的 TENComptence 项目 </li></ul><ul><li>教育技术,互用性 & 标准中心 </li></ul><ul><li>由 JISC 资助,支持英国大学在教育技术方面的创新和技术标准的应用 </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Institute for Educational Cybernetics (IEC) <ul><li>Cybernetics (from Wikipedia): </li></ul><ul><li>“ the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems… closely related to control theory and systems theory… equally applicable to physical and social (that is, language-based) systems.” </li></ul><ul><li>控制论(摘自维基百科): </li></ul><ul><li>“ 对组织系统的结构的跨学科的研究…与控制理论和系统论有紧密地联系…同样地可以应用到自然和社会 ( 那些以语言为基础 ) 的系统。” </li></ul><ul><li>Our mission: </li></ul><ul><li>“ to develop a better understanding of how information and communications technologies affect the organisation of education at all levels, from the individual learning to the global.” </li></ul><ul><li>我们的使命是 : </li></ul><ul><li>“ 加深对信息技术如何影响不同层次的教育组织(从个体的学习到全球的教育)的进一步的理解” </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Education System was designed for a world that is passing 现有的教育体系是为正在逐渐成为过去的世界而设计的
    6. 6. Reducing knowledge to subjects, losing the benefits of inter-disciplinarity 把知识压缩成不同的学科 , 失去了各学科相互渗透的优势 Physics Chemistry Biology History Philosophy Geography Mathematics Art Music Medicine
    7. 7. The education system assumes printing as the dominant technology 现有的教育体系中,印刷仍是占主导地位的技术
    8. 8. The practice of education is based on tradition 教育实践是基于传统的模式
    9. 9. The traditional focus of education has been to transmit knowledge 传统教育致力于知识的传播
    10. 10. The assumption of education has been stability in society 教育 认为本社会是固定不变 <ul><li>Industrial society </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable employment </li></ul><ul><li>Slow innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>International relations </li></ul><ul><li>工业社会 </li></ul><ul><li>可预测的就业机会 </li></ul><ul><li>缓慢的革新 </li></ul><ul><li>经济 </li></ul><ul><li>贸易 </li></ul><ul><li>国际关系 </li></ul>
    11. 11. But the world is changing 但是世界正在改变 <ul><li>Post-industrial society </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and rapid innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Instant communications </li></ul><ul><li>New trade relations </li></ul><ul><li>International relations </li></ul><ul><li>后工业社会 </li></ul><ul><li>全球化 </li></ul><ul><li>技术和迅猛革新 </li></ul><ul><li>同步交流 </li></ul><ul><li>新的贸易关系 </li></ul><ul><li>国际关系 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Education needs to respond to the changing needs of learners and society 教育应对变化的学生和社会的需求做出反应 <ul><li>High level skills </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate application </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to find relevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Team work </li></ul><ul><li>高水平的技能 </li></ul><ul><li>学以致用 </li></ul><ul><li>发现信息的能力 </li></ul><ul><li>解决问题 </li></ul><ul><li>创新 </li></ul><ul><li>交流 </li></ul><ul><li>合作 </li></ul><ul><li>团队工作 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Education needs to exploit the new opportunities afforded by technology 教育需要探索技术所提供的新机会 <ul><li>Learning Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling tools </li></ul><ul><li>Research tools </li></ul><ul><li>Global community </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Learning Environments </li></ul><ul><li>学习资源 </li></ul><ul><li>学习机会 </li></ul><ul><li>合作工具 </li></ul><ul><li>模式化工具 </li></ul><ul><li>研究工具 </li></ul><ul><li>全球共同体 </li></ul><ul><li>个性化学习环境 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Traditional Educational structures are not suited to this <ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Subject department </li></ul><ul><li>Programme of Study </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Examination / Assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Timetable </li></ul><ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>Work partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-disciplinarity </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative space </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible planning </li></ul><ul><li>大学 </li></ul><ul><li>与用人方的合作关系 </li></ul><ul><li>跨学科 </li></ul><ul><li>个人档案 </li></ul><ul><li>探究式学习 </li></ul><ul><li>新的评估形式 </li></ul><ul><li>合作空间 </li></ul><ul><li>灵活的计划 </li></ul><ul><li>大学 </li></ul><ul><li>学院 </li></ul><ul><li>学科系 部 </li></ul><ul><li>学习的科目 </li></ul><ul><li>传授 知识 </li></ul><ul><li>考试 / 作业 </li></ul><ul><li>课堂教学 </li></ul><ul><li>课程表 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Why is it so difficult to change old structures and exploit new technologies? 要改变旧的结构和探索新技术 , 为什么如此困难 ? ? Timetable? Classroom? Lecture? Workplace? Home Online? Collaboration? Learners Teachers
    16. 16. We need to model existing educational processes and structures in order to redesign them successfully: The Viable System model provides tools for this 为了重新设计教育过程和结构,我们必须要对他们的现状进行分析。 活性系统模型为我们提供了一个这样的工具。 Stafford Beer 1926-2002
    17. 17. The concerns of the teacher are not the same as those of the learners 教师所关注的与学生的是不同的 Environment Teacher Planning and management What to teach New knowledge Requirements of employers Materials Tools How to understand learners Teaching ideas Ways of explaining Suggestions for learning activities Assessment ideas 如:教什么,新知识,用人单位的要求,材料,工具,怎样理解学生,教学思想,用不同的方法去解释,对学习活动的建议和考核的思路。
    18. 18. The concerns of the learners are not the same as those of the teacher 学生所关注与老师的也是不同的 Environment . Is this right for me? Do I understand? Am I doing enough? Who can help me? Where can I find materials? Have I got time? Will this get me what I want? What next? 如:这对我合适吗?我懂了吗?我所做的够了吗?谁能帮助我?我到哪里能找到学习材料?我有时间吗?我得到了我所想要学的吗?下一步是什么?
    19. 19. Teaching is concerned with the planning and management of learning activities 教学所关注的是计划和管理学习活动 Environment Learning activities & actions Meta-system Planning and management Env.
    20. 20. Pedagogy: engagement between teacher and learners 教学方法:教师和学生之间的交互作用 Environment Learner cohort Teacher Planning and management Knowledge, ideas, resources Pedagogy Knowledge, ideas, resources Env. BUT: Variety (Env) >> Variety (Learners) >> Variety (Teacher) 但是:环境的的多样性 >> 多样性学生 >> 教师的多样性
    21. 21. Balancing variety: homeostatic loops 平衡多样性:自我平衡的循环 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. Variety (Env) >> Variety (Learners) >> Variety (Teacher) 环境的的多样性 >> 多样性学生 >> 教师的多样性 Pedagogy: engagement between teacher and learners 教学方法:教师和学生之间的交互作用
    22. 22. Managing Variety in the traditional classroom 在传统的教室里对多样性的管理 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. 教师缩减了教学内容 教师缩减了学生的需求 Teacher attenuates content Teacher attenuates learners’ needs
    23. 23. Managing variety for resource-based learning 资源为主的学习对多样性的管理 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. 教师贡献和管理学习资源 教师提供学习资源以满足学生个体的需求 Teacher contributes to and manages resource-base Teacher responds to individual learners’ needs with resources
    24. 24. Managing Variety for Inter-disciplinary, Inquiry-based learning 跨学科的探究式学习对多样性的管理 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. 教师选择和推荐资源 教师根据学生个体的需要给与辅导 学生在特定的学习环境中相互支持 学生搜索和选择相关的资源 Teacher selects and recommends resources Teacher responds to individual learners’ needs with supervision Learners search and select relevant resources Learners support each other in learning sets
    25. 25. Where technology systems and interventions impact 技术和干预的影响所在 Environment Learners Teacher Planning and management Env. VLE/LD OER Web 2.0 PLE
    26. 26. The Viable System Model is recursive 活力系统模型的递归性 State The State Education State Dept Programme State Institution Dept. State HE Institution State Education HE
    27. 27. 控制论模型 Cybernetic modelling <ul><ul><li>Encourages examination of where and how different technologies affect teaching and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can guide pedagogic design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an alternative to educational rhetoric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows where technology still needs development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can guide the re-design of institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can inform the changing role of educational institutions in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>鼓励探究不同的技术在何处,以何种方式影响教学的 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>能够指导教学设计 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>是教育体系研究的另一种方法 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>指明技术在哪些方面仍然需要发展 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>能够指导重新设计大学 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>能够告知大学在社会中角色的转变 </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Managerial, operational and environmental varieties diffusing through an institutional system, tend to equate; they should be designed to do so with minimum damage to people and cost. 在一个制度化的系统中,管理方面, 操作方面和环境方面的变化的传播,往往是相同的;应该通过设计,使这些变化对人员和成本的影响降到最低。 (Beer, 1979) Teaching, learning and environmental varieties diffusing through an educational system, tend to equate; they should be designed to do so with minimum damage to people and cost. 在一个教育系统中,教学方法,学习方式和环境的变化的传播往往是相同的;应该通过设计,使这些变化对人员和成本的影响降到最低。 (Liber, 2009)
    29. 29. Links and References <ul><li>Beer, S (1985) Designing the System for Organisations. Chichester, Wiley </li></ul><ul><li>IEC website : http://www.bolton.ac.uk/iec </li></ul><ul><li>JISC CETIS: http://jisc.cetis.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Email: o.liber@bolton.ac.uk </li></ul>
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