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Jakub Skorupski, WPUT, Poland, eng
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Jakub Skorupski, WPUT, Poland, eng

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Вторая Международная научно-практическая конференция "Органическое сельское хозяйство: опыт развития за рубежом и внедрение в Беларуси" 30 ноября 2013 г.

Вторая Международная научно-практическая конференция "Органическое сельское хозяйство: опыт развития за рубежом и внедрение в Беларуси" 30 ноября 2013 г.

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  • 1. Intensive and organic methods of livestock farming: influence of livestock farms on water ecosystems with example of Baltic Sea and solutions for the issue Jakub Skorupski West Pomeranian University of Technology The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 2. Definitions • Industrial animal production – intensive rearing of livestock in specialized installations, which productively, organizationally and legally are closer to manufacturing facilities (enterprises, factories) than to farms. • IED (former IPPC) farms – instalations for the intensive rearing of pigs and poultry with more than 2.000 pigs over 30 kg or 750 sows, or 40.000 places for poultry, that require integrated permits, in accordance with the EU Directive on industrial emissions (former Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive). • Cattle, sheep, goats, horses and fur animals large-scale breeding installations with equivalent number of livestock should also be consider. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 3. Definitions The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 4. Statistical Data • about 67,3 millions of pigs in the Baltic Sea catchment area, • population of poultry amounts to about 189,8 millions, • app. 35,6 millions of cows in the Baltic Sea catchment area, • total livestock density in the EU countries of the BSR is equal to 40,4 millions of LU, • more than 1.320 IED farms in the Baltic catchment area, • number of farms with more than 100 LU in the EU countries of the BSR amounts up to 74.400. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 5. Statistical Data 2.2% Bydło Cattle 11.0% Owce Sheep 46.2% Kozy Goats Trzoda chlewna Pigs drób Poultry konie Horses 39.5% 0.1% 1.0% The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Percentage of particular species in total livestock of the BSR Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 6. Statistical Data 1,152.1 1,784.8 2,052.8 747.2 4,582.2 1.9 Czech Rep. Denmark 11,117.9 Germany Estonia Latvia 6.9 4.2 2.3 1.0 10.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 Lithuania Poland Slovakia Finland 1,030.9 487.9 17,985.2 Sweden 313.2 46.7 Total number of livestock (in thous. of LU; on the left) and industrial animal farms (>100 LU, in thous.; on the right) in the EU countries of the BSR The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 7. Accumulated Environmental Impact The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 8. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • water pollution – nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, • eutrophication – “overfertilization” of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), • microbiological pollution – Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, • indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 9. Water Pollution N P 13 Agriculture 24 2 Forestry 10 Precipitation 4 Industry 8 59 Domestic wastewater Fish farms 8 55 14 2 1 Percentage contribution of particular anthropogenic sources in the overall nutrient load flowing into the sea (Granstedt, 2006) The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 10. Water Pollution N P Poland 5% 5% Germany 10% 8% 27% Denmark 5% 4% 35% Sweden Finland 3% 14% 8% Russia Estonia 2% 20% Latvia 11% 17% 5% Lithuania 10% 11% Percentage contribution of the BSR countries in the overall nutrient load flowing into the sea (HELCOM, 2006) The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 11. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • water pollution – nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, • eutrophication – “overfertilization” of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), • microbiological pollution – Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, • indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 12. Eutrophication The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 13. Manure production and eutrophication IPPC farm with 2500 productive pigs = 125,0 AU 1 AU of productive (slaughter) hog 125,0 x 0,18 = 22,5 [kgN/day] 125,0 x 0,053 = 6,63 [kgP/day] if we assume, that productive pig gives approximately 3 times more excrement than humans… IPPC farm with 2500 is equivalent to productive pigs overfertilisation = = eutrophication (f.i. input of 1 kg of nitrogen into water reservoirs causes creation of about 16 kg of biomass!) town with 7500 inhabitants, with out sewage treatment plant! The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund = 0,18 kgN/day and 0,053 kgP/day Minsk, 13.11.2013 8,21 MgN/year and 2,42 MgP/year Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 14. Eutrophication Chlorophyll a concentration in waters of the European seas, July 2007 (JRC, emis.jrc.ec. europa.eu) The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in
  • 15. Eutrophication The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in
  • 16. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • water pollution – nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, • eutrophication – “overfertilization” of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), • microbiological pollution – Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, • indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 17. Problems connected with industrial animal farming A) ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • water pollution – nitrogen and phosphorus leakage to the ground water, connected with overfertilization, • eutrophication – “overfertilization” of inland and sea waters (algal blooms, decrease of fish population, ecosystems modifications, loss of bottom fauna, lack of oxygen in waters), • microbiological pollution – Staphylococcus sp., fecal streptococci, Escherichia coli, rubella bacilli, tubercle bacilli, footand-mouth disease viruses, various fungi and parasites, • indirect effect that contributes to formation of acid rain and increased greenhouse effect (greenhouse gas emission harming the ozone layer). The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 18. GHG emission The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in
  • 19. Acid Rains Ammonia emission in Europe (kg N/ha/year)
  • 20. Ozone Layer Destruction The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 21. Farm Animals Escapes The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 22. B) SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS • air pollution – ammoniac, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl compounds, amines, mercaptans, dinitrogen monoxide causes offensive odours, danger for human health, • loss of recreation places, • high costs of drinking water purification, • degradation of cropland – improper storage and usage of liquid manure, • farms’ location in direct neighborhood of NATURA 2000 areas and different protected or valuable areas and the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 23. C) LEGAL PROBLEMS • lack of fertilization plans, • lack of permanent soil quality monitoring, • Aarhus Convention principles regarding access to environmental information are not followed, • deficiency of the Helsinki Convention implementation, • lack of regulations concerning air odour qualit. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 24. Solutions? • • • • • • Secure a full implementation of the Helsinki Convention requirements for industrial animal farms. Monitor and control the implementation of the IED Directive on industrial farms. Execution of regular, independent soil monitoring in terms of nitrate contamination for farmland with high load of manure. Implementation of odour air quality standard. Promotion of biotechnological methods of manure utilisation (e.g. biogas production). Organic animal farming – 62 organic pig farms and 71 organic poultry farms in Poland. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 25. Industrial vs. Organic 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1 1999 2 3 4 5 6 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 7 2011 8 2013 Number of organic farms in Poland in the years 1999-2013 The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 26. Industrial vs. Organic 500000 450000 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1 1999 2 2001 3 2003 4 2005 5 2007 6 2009 7 2011 8 2013 Acreage of organic farms in Poland in the years 1999-2013 The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 27. Organic animal husbandry • • • • The animals fulfill the important role in organic farm: they improve and close the circulation of nutrients. Self-sufficiency feed-fertilizer allows stocking 0.5-1.5 LU/ha in organic agriculture. Animal welfare: livestock grazing in the summer and access to open air in winter: the animals must be able to move out of stable. The farm buildings should be provided with sufficient volume position, permanent access to water and food, adequate light and natural bedding. The animals rebuys must come from organic farms, they can be derived from conventional sources, but only under certain conditions – for procreation purposes. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 28. Organic animal husbandry • • • • Feed should be produced on the farm or becoming from other organic farms. Animal mutilation (castration, cutting sprouts, shortening their tails, etc.) are generally not permitted. Prophylactic administration of drugs is prohibited, and vaccinations allowed only if they are officially required. Conversion period of animals introduced into an existing ecological farm: 12 months in the case of horses, cattle for meat production, 6 months in the case of small ruminants and pigs and animals for milk production, 10 weeks for poultry for meat production, 6 weeks in the case of poultry for egg production. The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 29. ABOVE ALL – LAW INTRODUCTION OF THE NATIONAL LEGISLATION RATIFICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW PROBLEMS WITH IMPLEMENTATION, COMPLIA NCE AND ENFORCEMENT Aliaksandr Pakhomau Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus
  • 30. Thank You for Your attention The project is partly financed by the European Union European Regional Development Fund Minsk, 13.11.2013 Organic Farming: Foreign Development Experience and Implementation in Belarus