Chapter 2 The Nature of Knowledge
Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Understand the difference between knowledge, data, and information </li></ul><ul><li>Explain th...
What is Data? <ul><li>Data comprises facts, observations, or perceptions  </li></ul><ul><li>Data represents raw numbers or...
What is Information? <ul><li>Information is processed data </li></ul><ul><li>Information is a subset of data, only includi...
What is Knowledge? <ul><li>A justified true belief (Nonaka and Takeuchi) </li></ul><ul><li>It is different from data & inf...
Data, Information, and Knowledge Information Data Zero Low Medium High Very High Value Knowledge
Data, Information, and Knowledge:Example H T H T T H H H T H … T T T H T  Information Data Zero Low Medium High Very High ...
Data, Information, Knowledge and Events   Knowledge Information Data Information  System Decision Events Use of informatio...
Subjective View of knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge as State of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as Practice </li></ul>
Objective View of knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge as Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as Access to Information </li></ul><u...
Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Individual, social, causal, conditional, relational and pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied, e...
Procedural and Declarative Knowledge <ul><li>Declarative knowledge (substantive knowledge) focuses on beliefs about relati...
Tacit and Explicit Knowledge <ul><li>Tacit knowledge includes insights, intuitions, and hunches  </li></ul><ul><li>Explici...
General and Specific Knowledge <ul><li>General knowledge is possessed by a large number of individuals and can be transfer...
Technically and Contextually Specific Knowledge <ul><li>Technically specific knowledge is deep knowledge about a specific ...
Illustrations of the Different Types of Knowledge
Knowledge and Expertise <ul><li>Expertise can be defined as knowledge of higher quality  </li></ul><ul><li>An “expert” is ...
Types of Expertise <ul><li>Associational Expertise  </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Skills Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical...
Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Simple knowledge focuses on one basic area  </li></ul><ul><li>Complex knowledge draws upon mult...
Reservoirs of Knowledge Organizational  Entities People Knowledge Reservoirs Groups Individuals Organizational Units Inter...
Characteristics of Knowledge <ul><li>Explicitness </li></ul><ul><li>Codifiability </li></ul><ul><li>Teachability </li></ul...
Conclusions <ul><li>Knowledge is different from data & information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in an area can be defined a...
Chapter 2 The Nature of Knowledge
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Km slides ch02 (1)

  1. 1. Chapter 2 The Nature of Knowledge
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Understand the difference between knowledge, data, and information </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the alternative views of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the different types of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the various locations of knowledge </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Data? <ul><li>Data comprises facts, observations, or perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Data represents raw numbers or assertions </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Information? <ul><li>Information is processed data </li></ul><ul><li>Information is a subset of data, only including those data that possess context, relevance and purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Information involves manipulation of raw data </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Knowledge? <ul><li>A justified true belief (Nonaka and Takeuchi) </li></ul><ul><li>It is different from data & information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is at the highest level in a hierarchy with information at the middle level, and data to be at the lowest level </li></ul><ul><li>It is the richest, deepest & most valuable of the three </li></ul><ul><li>Information with direction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Data, Information, and Knowledge Information Data Zero Low Medium High Very High Value Knowledge
  7. 7. Data, Information, and Knowledge:Example H T H T T H H H T H … T T T H T Information Data Zero Low Medium High Very High Value Knowledge EV = -$0.80 Counting p H = n H /(n H +n T ) p T = n T /(n H +n T ) EV=p H R H + p T R T p H = 0.40 p T = 0.60 R H = +$10 R T = -$8 n H = 40 n T = 60
  8. 8. Data, Information, Knowledge and Events Knowledge Information Data Information System Decision Events Use of information Knowledge
  9. 9. Subjective View of knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge as State of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as Practice </li></ul>
  10. 10. Objective View of knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge as Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as Access to Information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as Capability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Individual, social, causal, conditional, relational and pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied, encoded and procedural </li></ul>
  12. 12. Procedural and Declarative Knowledge <ul><li>Declarative knowledge (substantive knowledge) focuses on beliefs about relationships among variables </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural knowledge focuses on beliefs relating sequences of steps or actions to desired (or undesired) outcomes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tacit and Explicit Knowledge <ul><li>Tacit knowledge includes insights, intuitions, and hunches </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit knowledge refers to knowledge that has been expressed into words and numbers </li></ul><ul><li>We can convert explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge </li></ul>
  14. 14. General and Specific Knowledge <ul><li>General knowledge is possessed by a large number of individuals and can be transferred easily across individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Specific knowledge, or “idiosyncratic knowledge,” is possessed by a very limited number of individuals, and is expensive to transfer </li></ul>
  15. 15. Technically and Contextually Specific Knowledge <ul><li>Technically specific knowledge is deep knowledge about a specific area </li></ul><ul><li>Contextually specific knowledge knowledge refers to the knowledge of particular circumstances of time and place in which work is to be performed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Illustrations of the Different Types of Knowledge
  17. 17. Knowledge and Expertise <ul><li>Expertise can be defined as knowledge of higher quality </li></ul><ul><li>An “expert” is one who is able to perform a task much better than others </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Expertise <ul><li>Associational Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Skills Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical (Deep) Expertise </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Simple knowledge focuses on one basic area </li></ul><ul><li>Complex knowledge draws upon multiple distinct areas of expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Support knowledge relates to organizational infrastructure and facilitates day-to-day operations </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical knowledge pertains to the short-term positioning of the organization relative to its markets, competitors, and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic knowledge pertains to the long-term positioning of the organization in terms of its corporate vision and strategies for achieving that vision </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reservoirs of Knowledge Organizational Entities People Knowledge Reservoirs Groups Individuals Organizational Units Inter-organizational Networks Organizations Artifacts Practices Repositories Technologies
  21. 21. Characteristics of Knowledge <ul><li>Explicitness </li></ul><ul><li>Codifiability </li></ul><ul><li>Teachability </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Specificity </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Knowledge is different from data & information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in an area can be defined as justified beliefs about relationships among concepts relevant to that particular area </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge can be of different types </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge has several characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge resides is several different places </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chapter 2 The Nature of Knowledge

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