“Un sasso è caduto in un bicchiere colmo d’acqua e l’acqua è traboccata sulla
tovaglia. Solo che il bicchiere era alto cen...
1st factor: The glided succession and the clays
.

Hendron and Patton 1985

N
DAM
2nd factor: The chair-like shape
The Alps:
a double vergence belt
A

Dal Piaz et al. 2003
The Belluno anticline and the Erto syncline
Castellarin et al. 2002

Erto Syncline

North

South

Fault-bend-fold

DP: Dol...
3rd factor: Faults
(Erghene and Tramontin)
SR

F

SR
Sc

Sc

F

F

Vj

Sc
F

F
Ign

F

Vj
After Rossi and Semenza (1965) a...
1st
9/10/1963

+
Semenza and Ghirotti 2000

2ndt
Paleolandslide

Hadron e Patton
glacier

+
3rd

SR

F

SR
Sc

Sc

F

F

V...
Is this the whole story?
Tectonic map of the Alps

Dal Piaz et al. 2003
Dinaric faulting in Vajont valley?
Col delle Tosatte and Croda Bianca faults
VJ
SR

Ign
Sc

Massironi et al. 2013
A sliding plane, everything but plane!
Folds
E-W to WNW

N-S to NNW
A sliding plane, everything but plane!
The E-W fold of the eastern lobe

Walter et al. 2013

Massironi et al. 2013
A sliding plane, everything but plane!
The Massalezza syncline
Western lobe

Eastern lobe
Eastern lobe
Western lobe

Easte...
A sliding plane, everything but plane!
Meso-folds interference

Massironi et al. 2013
UAV photogrammetry
Ramsey 1967

n = 163
Inherited folds in the accumulation zone:
Alpine folds?
SR

F

SR
Sc

B Block

Sc
F

A Block

F
Vj

Sc
F
F

F

Ign
Vj
Afte...
850 m

0

Inherited folds
in the accumulation zone:
Alpine folds?
Trasverse resistivity section ERT8 – Block A

Soccher fm...
0
900 m

Inherited folds
in the accumulation zone
Masalezza syncline
Longitudinal resistivity section ERT1 – Block A

Socc...
The 3D Structural Model

Bistacchi et al.,2013
(see Poster session)
Kinematics

Block A: vector of finite displacement
Azimuth: N 8±2.5°, Length: 361±12 m, Slight rotation
Block B: vector of...
1st: Clays

2nd: Chair-like shape
Semenza and Ghirotti 2000

Hadron e Patton
glacier

3rd: Faults
SR

F

4th: A missing fa...
A Missing Factor:
A sliding plane, everything but plane!
•

M.te Toc slopes is located at the back-limb of the Alpine Bell...
Thanks!
Dove si vede lo sprofondamento nelle Alpi meridionali?
west

Piattafroma di Trento: Monte Pasubio

east
Dove si vede lo sprofondamento nelle Alpi meridionali?
Monte Testo

west

onlap

100 m
approx. scale

Zampieri D. & Massir...
Duranno Thrust
WSW

ENE

M. Duranno

.
Mappa delle indagini geofisiche
Slid mass volume and topographic
sections from the 3D Model
241.3 Mm3

(Bistacchi et al., 2013
see Poster session)
Middle Jurassic rifting

Beltrando et al. 2010

Ghirotti et al 2013
Alpine-Dinaric interaction
in Eastern Southern Alps
9 Ottobre 1963
Volume: 270 Mmc
Area: ≈ 2km2

Spessore max: 250 m
Velocità: 20-30 m/sec
Durata: 45 sec
25 milioni di m3 di ...
9oct vajont2013bcompresso
9oct vajont2013bcompresso
9oct vajont2013bcompresso
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9oct vajont2013bcompresso

  1. 1. “Un sasso è caduto in un bicchiere colmo d’acqua e l’acqua è traboccata sulla tovaglia. Solo che il bicchiere era alto centinaia di metri e il sasso come una montagna e di sotto sulla tovaglia stavano migliaia di vite umane.” “A stone fell into a glass full of water and the water overflowed on the tablecloth. But the glass was hundreds of meters high, the stone as big as a mountain and on the tablecloth there were thousands or human lives” Dino Buzzati , Corriere della Sera, 11 Ottobre 1963 9 Ottobre 1963 Ore 22h39’46
  2. 2. 1st factor: The glided succession and the clays . Hendron and Patton 1985 N DAM
  3. 3. 2nd factor: The chair-like shape
  4. 4. The Alps: a double vergence belt A Dal Piaz et al. 2003
  5. 5. The Belluno anticline and the Erto syncline Castellarin et al. 2002 Erto Syncline North South Fault-bend-fold DP: Dolomia Principale; FS: Fm Soverzene; FI: Fm Igne; CV: Calcare Vaiont; FS: Fonzaso-Soccher; SR: Scaglia Rossa Doglioni and Carminati, 2008
  6. 6. 3rd factor: Faults (Erghene and Tramontin) SR F SR Sc Sc F F Vj Sc F F Ign F Vj After Rossi and Semenza (1965) and Riva et al. (1990)
  7. 7. 1st 9/10/1963 + Semenza and Ghirotti 2000 2ndt Paleolandslide Hadron e Patton glacier + 3rd SR F SR Sc Sc F F Vj Sc F F Ign F Vj Semenza 2001
  8. 8. Is this the whole story?
  9. 9. Tectonic map of the Alps Dal Piaz et al. 2003
  10. 10. Dinaric faulting in Vajont valley? Col delle Tosatte and Croda Bianca faults VJ SR Ign Sc Massironi et al. 2013
  11. 11. A sliding plane, everything but plane! Folds E-W to WNW N-S to NNW
  12. 12. A sliding plane, everything but plane! The E-W fold of the eastern lobe Walter et al. 2013 Massironi et al. 2013
  13. 13. A sliding plane, everything but plane! The Massalezza syncline Western lobe Eastern lobe Eastern lobe Western lobe Eastern lobe Western lobe Massalezza ditch
  14. 14. A sliding plane, everything but plane! Meso-folds interference Massironi et al. 2013
  15. 15. UAV photogrammetry Ramsey 1967 n = 163
  16. 16. Inherited folds in the accumulation zone: Alpine folds? SR F SR Sc B Block Sc F A Block F Vj Sc F F F Ign Vj After Rossi and Semenza (1965) and Riva et al. (1990)
  17. 17. 850 m 0 Inherited folds in the accumulation zone: Alpine folds? Trasverse resistivity section ERT8 – Block A Soccher fm Sc fm Fonzaso fm Fonzaso fm Fonzaso fm Francese, Giorgi et al., 2013 (see Poster session)
  18. 18. 0 900 m Inherited folds in the accumulation zone Masalezza syncline Longitudinal resistivity section ERT1 – Block A Soccher fm Sc fm Fonzaso fm Fonzaso fm Francese, Giorgi et al., 2013 (See Poster session) Fonzaso fm
  19. 19. The 3D Structural Model Bistacchi et al.,2013 (see Poster session)
  20. 20. Kinematics Block A: vector of finite displacement Azimuth: N 8±2.5°, Length: 361±12 m, Slight rotation Block B: vector of finite displacement Azimuth N 3±1°, Length: 464±12 m, No rotation Bistacchi et al., 2013 (see Poster session)
  21. 21. 1st: Clays 2nd: Chair-like shape Semenza and Ghirotti 2000 Hadron e Patton glacier 3rd: Faults SR F 4th: A missing factor A sliding plane, everything but plane SR Sc Sc F F Vj Sc F F Ign F Vj 2ndt
  22. 22. A Missing Factor: A sliding plane, everything but plane! • M.te Toc slopes is located at the back-limb of the Alpine Belluno anticline and is enclosed between two Dinaric and downward converging reverse fault systems (Croda Bianca-Col Tramontin system and Col delle Tosatte fault). • This led to the N-S trending Massalezza syncline, which accounts for the two distinct lobes of the Vajont sliding surface and is associated with a series of polyharmonic folds interfering with neo-alpine meso-folds. • The Massalezza syncline and related concave shape of the sliding surface guaranteed the en-masse sliding of the 1963 event and favoured the separation of the two collapsed blocks that followed different and northward converging sliding paths. • Most of the folds recorded in the sliding surface pre-existed the landslide events and may have affected the gravitational processes in different concurrent modes: a. as meso-scale roughness/waviness, unevenly distributed on the sliding plane; b. through gravitational reactivation of the fold-associated flexural slip thrusts which likely favoured clay reach layer interconnectivity
  23. 23. Thanks!
  24. 24. Dove si vede lo sprofondamento nelle Alpi meridionali? west Piattafroma di Trento: Monte Pasubio east
  25. 25. Dove si vede lo sprofondamento nelle Alpi meridionali? Monte Testo west onlap 100 m approx. scale Zampieri D. & Massironi M., 2007 east
  26. 26. Duranno Thrust WSW ENE M. Duranno .
  27. 27. Mappa delle indagini geofisiche
  28. 28. Slid mass volume and topographic sections from the 3D Model 241.3 Mm3 (Bistacchi et al., 2013 see Poster session)
  29. 29. Middle Jurassic rifting Beltrando et al. 2010 Ghirotti et al 2013
  30. 30. Alpine-Dinaric interaction in Eastern Southern Alps
  31. 31. 9 Ottobre 1963 Volume: 270 Mmc Area: ≈ 2km2 Spessore max: 250 m Velocità: 20-30 m/sec Durata: 45 sec 25 milioni di m3 di acqua hanno scavalcato la diga Selli et al.,1964

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