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9oct vajont2013bcompresso

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  • 1. “Un sasso è caduto in un bicchiere colmo d’acqua e l’acqua è traboccata sulla tovaglia. Solo che il bicchiere era alto centinaia di metri e il sasso come una montagna e di sotto sulla tovaglia stavano migliaia di vite umane.” “A stone fell into a glass full of water and the water overflowed on the tablecloth. But the glass was hundreds of meters high, the stone as big as a mountain and on the tablecloth there were thousands or human lives” Dino Buzzati , Corriere della Sera, 11 Ottobre 1963 9 Ottobre 1963 Ore 22h39’46
  • 2. 1st factor: The glided succession and the clays . Hendron and Patton 1985 N DAM
  • 3. 2nd factor: The chair-like shape
  • 4. The Alps: a double vergence belt A Dal Piaz et al. 2003
  • 5. The Belluno anticline and the Erto syncline Castellarin et al. 2002 Erto Syncline North South Fault-bend-fold DP: Dolomia Principale; FS: Fm Soverzene; FI: Fm Igne; CV: Calcare Vaiont; FS: Fonzaso-Soccher; SR: Scaglia Rossa Doglioni and Carminati, 2008
  • 6. 3rd factor: Faults (Erghene and Tramontin) SR F SR Sc Sc F F Vj Sc F F Ign F Vj After Rossi and Semenza (1965) and Riva et al. (1990)
  • 7. 1st 9/10/1963 + Semenza and Ghirotti 2000 2ndt Paleolandslide Hadron e Patton glacier + 3rd SR F SR Sc Sc F F Vj Sc F F Ign F Vj Semenza 2001
  • 8. Is this the whole story?
  • 9. Tectonic map of the Alps Dal Piaz et al. 2003
  • 10. Dinaric faulting in Vajont valley? Col delle Tosatte and Croda Bianca faults VJ SR Ign Sc Massironi et al. 2013
  • 11. A sliding plane, everything but plane! Folds E-W to WNW N-S to NNW
  • 12. A sliding plane, everything but plane! The E-W fold of the eastern lobe Walter et al. 2013 Massironi et al. 2013
  • 13. A sliding plane, everything but plane! The Massalezza syncline Western lobe Eastern lobe Eastern lobe Western lobe Eastern lobe Western lobe Massalezza ditch
  • 14. A sliding plane, everything but plane! Meso-folds interference Massironi et al. 2013
  • 15. UAV photogrammetry Ramsey 1967 n = 163
  • 16. Inherited folds in the accumulation zone: Alpine folds? SR F SR Sc B Block Sc F A Block F Vj Sc F F F Ign Vj After Rossi and Semenza (1965) and Riva et al. (1990)
  • 17. 850 m 0 Inherited folds in the accumulation zone: Alpine folds? Trasverse resistivity section ERT8 – Block A Soccher fm Sc fm Fonzaso fm Fonzaso fm Fonzaso fm Francese, Giorgi et al., 2013 (see Poster session)
  • 18. 0 900 m Inherited folds in the accumulation zone Masalezza syncline Longitudinal resistivity section ERT1 – Block A Soccher fm Sc fm Fonzaso fm Fonzaso fm Francese, Giorgi et al., 2013 (See Poster session) Fonzaso fm
  • 19. The 3D Structural Model Bistacchi et al.,2013 (see Poster session)
  • 20. Kinematics Block A: vector of finite displacement Azimuth: N 8±2.5°, Length: 361±12 m, Slight rotation Block B: vector of finite displacement Azimuth N 3±1°, Length: 464±12 m, No rotation Bistacchi et al., 2013 (see Poster session)
  • 21. 1st: Clays 2nd: Chair-like shape Semenza and Ghirotti 2000 Hadron e Patton glacier 3rd: Faults SR F 4th: A missing factor A sliding plane, everything but plane SR Sc Sc F F Vj Sc F F Ign F Vj 2ndt
  • 22. A Missing Factor: A sliding plane, everything but plane! • M.te Toc slopes is located at the back-limb of the Alpine Belluno anticline and is enclosed between two Dinaric and downward converging reverse fault systems (Croda Bianca-Col Tramontin system and Col delle Tosatte fault). • This led to the N-S trending Massalezza syncline, which accounts for the two distinct lobes of the Vajont sliding surface and is associated with a series of polyharmonic folds interfering with neo-alpine meso-folds. • The Massalezza syncline and related concave shape of the sliding surface guaranteed the en-masse sliding of the 1963 event and favoured the separation of the two collapsed blocks that followed different and northward converging sliding paths. • Most of the folds recorded in the sliding surface pre-existed the landslide events and may have affected the gravitational processes in different concurrent modes: a. as meso-scale roughness/waviness, unevenly distributed on the sliding plane; b. through gravitational reactivation of the fold-associated flexural slip thrusts which likely favoured clay reach layer interconnectivity
  • 23. Thanks!
  • 24. Dove si vede lo sprofondamento nelle Alpi meridionali? west Piattafroma di Trento: Monte Pasubio east
  • 25. Dove si vede lo sprofondamento nelle Alpi meridionali? Monte Testo west onlap 100 m approx. scale Zampieri D. & Massironi M., 2007 east
  • 26. Duranno Thrust WSW ENE M. Duranno .
  • 27. Mappa delle indagini geofisiche
  • 28. Slid mass volume and topographic sections from the 3D Model 241.3 Mm3 (Bistacchi et al., 2013 see Poster session)
  • 29. Middle Jurassic rifting Beltrando et al. 2010 Ghirotti et al 2013
  • 30. Alpine-Dinaric interaction in Eastern Southern Alps
  • 31. 9 Ottobre 1963 Volume: 270 Mmc Area: ≈ 2km2 Spessore max: 250 m Velocità: 20-30 m/sec Durata: 45 sec 25 milioni di m3 di acqua hanno scavalcato la diga Selli et al.,1964