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Reniassance artists

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An in depth look at the artists you need to know about in the Renaissance

An in depth look at the artists you need to know about in the Renaissance

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  • The Mourning of Christ <br />

Reniassance artists Reniassance artists Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 17: Page 471 The Renaissance
  • The Growth of Italian City-States
  • Why were Italian citystates so rich and powerful? View slide
  • • Overseas trade, spurred by the Crusades, led to their growth • Northern Italy had a wealthy merchant class • It’s classical heritage of Greece and Rome View slide
  • How did Florence become the most influential city-state?
  • • Florence was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was rural • Because of the plague, many of the city’s survivors could demand higher wages • Because Florence was small, many of its citizens could be involved in politics
  • What was the Renaissance and why did it begin in Italy?
  • • Renaissance means “re-birth” which refers to revival in arts and learning • Italian merchants displayed their wealth by giving financial support to artists • Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) was a generous patron of the arts
  • The Spirit of the Renaissance
  • Why People Like Me Became Interested in Ancient Culture…
  • • The Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around them • Church leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artists
  • A Fascination with Classical Cultures
  • • Scholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman culture • Artists used ancient art as models • Brunelleschi designed buildings after studying Roman ruins
  • • Filippo Brunelleschi • Commissioned to build the cathedral dome in Florence (Il Duomo) – Used unique architectural concepts. • He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome
  • Brunelleschi’s Dome
  • Dome Comparisons Il Duomo St. Peter’s (Florence) (Rome) St. Paul’s (London) US capital (Washington)
  • A New Type of Scholar Called a Humanist
  • • • • • Humanists adopted many Roman and Greek beliefs 1.) seeking fulfillment in daily life 2.) all people have dignity and worth 3.) the ideal person—one who can do almost anything (the Renaissance Man)
  • • Humanists learned many subjects, such as Latin, Greek history, and mathematics • In the Middle Ages, religious people proved their piety by living a plain life—humanists enjoyed life without offending God
  • • • • • Machiavelli—wrote The Prince The Prince was a book about Italian government Machiavelli supported the idea of absolute power In order to keep power, a ruler must do some evil
  • Petrarch • Father of Renaissance humanism • Poet • sonnets
  • A Belief in Human Potential
  • • Emphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlife • Renaissance thinkers strove to master almost every art • Later ages called such people “Renaissance men”
  • Renaissance Artists
  • • Individuals became the center of attention during the Renaissance as the belief in human potential & ability began to emerge from Medieval ways of thinking
  • • Ideal Man—was well educated in the Classics; should be charming, witty, & smart; can dance, write poetry, & play music; should be physically fit (called a “Renaissance Man”)
  • • Ideal Woman—study Classics; write, dance, paint, make music well; but should not seek fame or political power (Renaissance women were far better educated but had fewer rights than Medieval women)
  • Giovanni Giotto
  • • Giotto developed a new artistic style for creating frescos (paint on wet plaster walls): – Painted human figures that appeared lifelike – Painted people with emotion – Painted people in frescos interacting with each other
  • Giotto’s “ Lamentation over Christ”
  • Donato Donatello
  • • • • Donatello was a great sculptor of the Renaissance Medieval sculptors only carved the front of a statue, but Donatello wanted sculptures to be viewed from all sides like Greek & Roman statues This technique has become known as in-theround
  • Donatello’s “David” became the first large, free-standing human sculpture •Donatello's bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is famous as the first unsupported standing work of bronze cast during the Renaissance, •and the first freestanding nude male sculpture made since antiquity. •It depicts David with an enigmatic smile, posed with his foot on Goliath's severed head just after defeating the giant.
  • Tommaso Masaccio
  • • Masaccio added to Giotto’s innovative style by using perspective: – Shows objects in the foreground as larger than objects in the background which gives the illusion of depth
  • Michelangelo
  • • Michelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpieces • His work includes the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty
  • Michelangelo’s “Pieta” depicts the Virgin Mary cradling the limp body of the crucified Jesus
  • Michelangelo’s statue of “David” expresses the Renaissance belief in human dignity and greatness
  • Compare the David of Donatello and Michelangelo
  • • Michelangelo painted more than 300 massive human figures onto the 5,800 squarefoot ceiling while laying on his back • The ceiling contains illustrations from the creation of Adam to the story of Noah
  • • www.vatican.va/various/cappelle/s istina_vr/
  • The Creation of the Heavens
  • The Sistine Chapel Details Creation of Man
  • • Michelangelo returned to the chapel to begin painting the altarpiece “The Last Judgment” • This painting features Christ judging souls as the rise and fall from each side of the painting
  • Bartholomew's flayed skin
  • Raphael
  • • • • Raphael “Perfected” Renaissance painting He became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance people “School of Athens” is his greatest work
  • • All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included in this painting  all of the great personalities of the classical period • A great variety of poses • Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel
  • Plato and Aristotle Socrates Raphael
  • Alexander the Great Michelangelo
  • Pythagoras
  • Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid
  • Perspective! Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • • A true “Renaissance Man” Leonardo was an inventor, painter, sculptor, & scientist
  • Leonardo, the Artist
  • From his Notebooks of over 5000 pages)
  • His “Last Supper” shows Jesus’ last meeting with the 12 apostles before the crucifixion The facial expressions, detail, and emotion had made it a masterpiece
  • The Last Supper – da Vinci, & Geometry
  • vertical The Last Supper and Perspective horizontal
  • A Da Vinci “Code” St. John or Mary Magdalene?
  • Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan, Italy
  • da Vinci’s Mona Lisa is great for its emotion and depth
  • Mona Lisa has no visible facial hair at all - including eyebrows and eyelashes
  • A Picasso Mona
  • • On August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed • After keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913
  • • In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid • On December 30 of that same year, another person damaged the painting by throwing a rock at it • The result was a speck of pigment near Mona Lisa's left elbow • The painting is now covered with bulletproof security glass
  • Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook
  • Leonardo, the Engineer:
  • • Leonardo sketched several designs for flying machines including this one with a rotating screw • He intended to power it with a wound-up spring
  • • Leonardo’s many military inventions included this design for an armored tank • Four soldiers sitting inside could turn cranks to move the wheels on this tank”
  • • da Vinci also invented a gigantic crossbow • It's difficult to know whether it would have worked, or whether it would have been superior to cannons of the same period
  • Vitruvian Man
  • • The length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height • The maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height • The distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is onefifth of a man's height
  • • The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars from other areas visited Italian city-states & took the new ideas they saw back
  • • Kings bought Renaissance art, helping to spread new ideas • Renaissance ideas spread to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), England, France, Belgium, Netherlands
  • • Renaissance in Germany was very religious—Christian humanists criticized the church & society (will lead to Protestant Reformation) • In 1516 the reformation began with Martin Luther’s protests Catholic church (why we have protestant religions today)
  • • Renaissance in England focused on social issues—Thomas More criticized society through Utopia • William Shakespeare— playwright who wrote plays based on ideas from classics & universal human qualities • Dante Alighieri – wrote “The Divine Comedy
  • • The Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and discovery • The Renaissance spirit played an important role in helping to launch the Age of Exploration