Introduction to sculpture


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Introduction to sculpture

  1. 1. Introduction to Sculpture A brief history
  2. 2. Sculpture is a vital part of civilizations across the globe. Megalith, England, 2500 B.C. Fertility Bird Goddess, Egyptian 3600 B.C.
  3. 3. Sculpture is a record of human existence. Sculpture is a reflection of the society in which it is produced. Terracotta warrior from the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)
  4. 4. Terracotta Army • • • • • Depicts the army of Qin Shi Huang (remember 1st Chinese Emperor) Created to serve as protection in the afterlife Estimated over 8500 sculptures. All range in size based on importance (what other civilization uses hierarchy of scale?) How do you think they were created?
  5. 5. Early sculptures of the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras were likely for symbolic or religious, as well as utilitarian. Venus of Willendorf, Austria, 25,000 B.C. Neolithic tools, 6,000 B.C..
  6. 6. Utilitarian Sculpture Utilitarian sculpture is created to be used. Examples: bowls, cups, chairs, playgrounds, etc. Wedding Vase, Maria Martinez Crown Fountain, Chicago Illinois,
  7. 7. Some ancient sculpture’s meanings remain a mystery. Stonehenge, England, 3100 B.C.
  8. 8. From small, hand held pieces to monuments, traditions of carving, casting and modeling emerged in these early sculptures. Trajan’s Column, Italy, 106 A.D. Bronze horse, 1000 B.C.
  9. 9. Sculpting Techniques Carving Casting Constructing Modeling
  10. 10. Carving: Subtractive process: material is removed Mainly wood and stone (marble)
  11. 11. Modeling: Additive process: material is added Clay, wax, plaster, paper-mache
  12. 12. Casting: a mold is used to form molten bronze(or other material) into a desired shape.
  13. 13. Construction: welding, gluing, nailing materials together. Anish Kapoor Cloud Gate You’ll see this one again very soon.
  14. 14. Assemblage: assembling found objects in unique ways. A type of Construction. Joseph Cornell
  15. 15. Sculptures of ancient empires recorded both religious and political life. Artisans of these cultures often used techniques and methods that continued unchanged for centuries. Statue of Memi and Sabu, Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, ca. 2575–2465 B.C. Menkaure and his queen, Egypt, 2550 B.C.
  16. 16. Sculpture of Ancient Greece and Rome is one of the greatest achievements of Western Art This work often focused on perfecting the human form.
  17. 17. During this same time, distinct sculptural traditions developed in other areas of the world.
  18. 18. During the Renaissance, artists again looked to perfecting the human form. Michelangelo sought to release the image that was “locked” in the stone.
  19. 19. Artists continued to work in this style into the 20th century •Edmonia Lewis, one of the only female African American sculptors of the time, sculpted figures that represent both the beauty of the human figure while presenting thought provoking content.
  20. 20. In the 19th and early 20th century, artists shifted from portraying realistic figures in favor of distorted and abstracted forms. Auguste Rodin
  21. 21. This abstraction of form carried on into the 20th century. Henry Moore Constantin Brancusi
  22. 22. Some artists shunned traditional materials and methods and created entirely new types of sculptures. Marcel Duchamp Alexander Calder
  23. 23. Some artists shunned traditional materials and methods and created entirely new types of sculptures. Robert Rauschenburg Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen
  24. 24. Contemporary artists continue to redefine sculpture as an art form. Louise Nevelson Deborah Butterfield
  25. 25. Contemporary artists continue to redefine sculpture as an art form. Andy Sandy Skoglund
  26. 26. Contemporary artists continue to redefine sculpture as an art form. Adrian Arleo
  27. 27. However sculpture is defined, it is more than just a three dimensional object. 3 fundamentals must be present: •Form: The configuration the idea takes whether recognizable or not that demonstrates skillful use of elements and principles. •Content: The emotion, passion or message the sculptor intends to convey and how the viewer interacts with the piece. •Technique: The sculptor’s ability to effectively use materials and tools. Craftsmanship.
  28. 28. Form •How has the artist successfully demonstrated the elements and principles? Chakaia
  29. 29. Content •What message or feeling is the artist conveying? Magdalena Abakanowicz
  30. 30. Technique •Was the artist Louise Bourgeois able to effectively use materials and tools? How did the subject inform her choices?