Introduction to photography types and processes


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Introduction to photography types and processes

  1. 1. History Of Photography Pinhole Camera to Digital Photography
  2. 2. History Lesson Objectives  • Define “photography”  • Learn scientific principles behind photography  • Learn about numerous innovators and their processes and ideas 
  3. 3. Photography Morphology • Comes from 2 ancient Greek words:  – Photo = “light”  – Graph = “draw or write”  • Photography = light writing 
  4. 4. Scientific Principles – Camera obscura = “darkroom” – Leonardo da Vinci drawing;1519 – Not permanent • Chemicals – Silver chloride turns -dark under exposure
  5. 5. Daguerreotype • Daguerre  – Partners with Niepce  – photographic plates  • Processing 30 minutes  One photograph 
  6. 6. Talbotype William Henry Fox Talbot  -Patented type of photography  Reproducible  Quicker than a Daguerreotype  Blurry/fuzzy image  1st “Art” photograph
  7. 7. Which is better? Though both have their pros and cons, the Talbotype was a patented process which meant there were a select few people who were able to use it.  Because of that the Daguerreotype was more commonly used. 
  8. 8. Stereoscopic Photography • 3D image  • Special camera with two lenses  • 2 simultaneous photographs  • 2 different views 
  9. 9. Birth of “motion” pictures Leland Stanford unwittingly started a chain of events that contributed to the development of motion pictures. To settle a wager regarding the position of a trotting horse's legs, he sent for Eadweard Muybridge, a British photographer who had recently been acclaimed for his photographs of Yosemite.
  10. 10. Although Muybridge made history when he arranged 12 cameras alongside a race track. Each was fitted with a shutter working at a speed he claimed to be "less than the two-thousandth part of a second." Strings attached to electric switches were stretched across the track; the horse, rushing past, breasted the strings and broke them, one after the other; and a series of negatives were made.
  11. 11. Though the photographs were hardly more than silhouettes, they clearly showed that the feet of the horse were all off the ground at one phase of the gallop. Moreover, to the surprise of the world, the feet were bunched together under the belly.
  12. 12. The Scientific American printed eighteen drawings from Muybridge's photographs on the first page of its October 19, 1878 issue. Readers were invited to paste the pictures on strips and to view them in the popular toy known as the zoetrope, A precursor of motion pictures. It was an open drum with slits in its side, mounted horizontally on a spindle so it could be twirled. Drawings showing successive phases of action placed inside the drum and viewed through the slits were seen one after the other, so quickly that the images merged in the mind to produce the illusion of motion.
  13. 13. Film Medium    slide (positive) or print (negative) film speed (ISOInternational Standards Organization) or ASA(American Standards Association) or DIN (German Institute for Standardization) Film brand (Kodak, Fuji, Agfa, and Polariod)
  14. 14. Film Processing    Dektol (developer) Stop bath (prevents contamination of fixer) Fixer (removes active silver to make image permanent)
  15. 15. Film Cameras Box Cameras  Folding Cameras  Large Format View Cameras  Twin Lens Reflex (TLR)  Rangefinder  Single Lens Reflex (SLR) 
  16. 16. Mr. George Eastman started the Kodak Camera Company. He worked hard to develop a camera that everybody could afford to buy. He did it in 1900. It was the Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera. It cost $1.00. Now everyone could take photographs, not just professional photographers.
  17. 17. Folding Cameras      The early folding cameras were compact amateur view cameras, At the end of the 19th century the first renowned strut folding cameras were designed, for No. 3A Autographic Kodak Junior. Its lens assembly needs to be pulled out along the rails on its opened hinged front door. The leaf shutter has a small lever for firing and maybe another for cocking Film is advanced with a key or knob; one stops winding when the new number appears in a red window on the back. viewfinder is a swivelling brilliant finder attached to the front of the lens.
  18. 18. Large Format Cameras   The press camera is still in wide use in and among fine art photographers Advances in film technology, notably finer film grain, have obviated the need for large-format cameras for most press assignments, however. In news photography, the press camera has been largely supplanted by the smaller formats of 120 film and 35mm film, and more recently by digital cameras.
  19. 19. 35 mm Rangefinder Cameras     Rugged reliability: made back in the days when cameras had more metal than plastic Rangefinder focusing still can't be beat for speed and accuracy Mechanical Copal and Compur shutters on these classics (works with a dead battery!) Fast, extremely sharp lenses (works in low lighting conditions)
  20. 20. 35 mm Single Lens Reflex    Single-lens reflex (SLR) camera is a camera that typically uses a semi-automatic moving mirror system Photographer see exactly what will be captured by the film As opposed to pre-SLR cameras where the view through the viewfinder could be significantly different from what was captured on film.
  21. 21. Digital Cameras: Early Samples    Since the mid-1970s, Kodak has invented several solid-state image sensors In 1986, Kodak scientists invented the world's first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels that could produce a 5x7-inch digital photo-quality print. Mavica was a brand of Sony cameras which used removable disks as the main recording media. In August, 1981, Sony released the Sony Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera) electronic still camera, the first commercial electronic camera.
  22. 22. Digital Cameras      Digital technology – the wave of the future. Most people these days have a digital cell phones. Many people have digital cameras. The new cell phones that take digital pictures. Digital Computer technology
  23. 23. Digital Image Processing Solid State Memory  Adobe Photoshop  PowerPoint  Fastone Viewer (free!) 
  24. 24. Summary History Of Photography Capturing Images through Film and Solid state devices  Film Chemical Processing  Digital image Processing through Computer Software  Cameras from the Pinhole Camera to Today’s Modern SLR Digital Devices  Future? 