LAP Project Concept
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  • 1. Centre for Urban Equity, CEPT University, Ahmedabad & Shakti Foundation, Delhi NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LOCAL ACCESSIBILITY PLANNING IN INDIAN CITIES Regenta Ahmedabad 15, Ashram Road, Ahmedabad-380013 30th June 2014
  • 2.  This project advocates the use of accessibility-measures and a participatory approach in the preparation of local area plans: – bridging gaps between city-wide proposals in the development plan mechanism and their implementation at the local level, – An area level planning instrument – we need to re-visit the planning issues time-to-time – beyond land re-adjustments (TPS). – ensuring equity, rationality and accountability in infrastructure provision - addressing demand-supply deficits for infrastructure; especially for those at risk of suffering marginalization. – helping citizens to play a more pronounced role in local area planning, in tune with the spirit of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act – linking planning with ward-level budgeting.  The project has three components: – Developing a methodology, – Demonstration and piloting a LAP in Rajkot, and – Advocacy and replication in other cities of the country. The PROJECT
  • 3. PLANNING IN INDIA  Planning in India is a highly centralized process .  Economic planning: prerogative of the Planning Commission of India chaired by the Prime Minister.  Physical planning: Urban planning is a state subject in India.  Number of agencies that are connected with the realm of urban planning in the states like: – Department of Urban Development and Urban Housing, Department of Roads and Buildings or Public Works Department and others. – MCs (esp. after 74th CAA) and UDAs (parastatals).
  • 4. LOPMENT LAN PLANNING HEME NAL PLAN APLAN REGIONALPLAN FOR GOA 2021 DEVELOPMENTPLAN FOR AHMEDABAD 2021 TOWN PLANNING SCHEME IN AHMEDABAD Figure 1: Physical planning at different scales in India (Source: CUE-CEPT, 2013)
  • 5.  Regional Plans deal with settlement growth, land use allocation and provision of infrastructure for areas including a city and its hinterland.  Development Plans/Master Plans are statutory documents that identify and propose direction of growth, land-use, transportation network and several other projects for an ambit area comprised of the core city and its periphery. – generally do not have a financial plan linked to them  City Development Plans are prepared in accordance with the requirements of JnNURM, aim at attracting business investments to the city, – have a financial plan linked to them.  Town Planning Schemes are prepared with a view to provide serviced land for city's expansion in the periphery, often by converting irregularly shaped agricultural land into serviced plots. PHYSICAL PLANNING IN INDIA
  • 6.  74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992. – Devolved urban planning from state government’s control to the ULBs. – Advocated formation of Ward Committees (WCs) with some local planning functions(along with other functions): o Maintenance of local infrastructure, o Review of revenue collections, draft annual budget and approval of capital expenditure.  Most states have not implemented the 74th CAA in its true spirit and continued to maintain a strong-hold on ULBs.  The WCs were large and didn’t reflect the aspirations of the citizens. DECENTRALIZATION
  • 7.  Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Mission (JnNURM), 2005-12 stressed upon community participation in local governance: – Community Participation Law enactment, – Formation of ward committees, ward sabhas/area sabhas made mandatory for identified cities to receive funding. – Ward sabhas expected to perform these functions: o Identify deficiencies in delivery of basic services, o Generate project proposals and prioritize for inclusion in ward development plan, o Help in maintenance of public amenities, and o Raise public awareness on issues of public interest. DECENTRALIZATION (along with other functions)
  • 8. Source: http://bangalore.citizenmatters.in/articles/5063-ward- committee-rules-give-more-power-to-citizens WARD COMMITTEEs An example of what powers could be exercised by a ward committee in the realm of local urban governance. Karnataka has now prepared the Municipal Corporations (Ward Committee) Bye- laws/Rules (draft) 2013. Karnataka already has the Karnataka Municipal Corporations (Wards Committee) Rules, 1997 in effect.
  • 9. PHYSICAL PLANNING IN INDIA  Landowners are merely informed or consulted once - for their objections and suggestions, that may ultimately be ignored even- and not made participants in the process of selection of sites for social infrastructure.  The process of planning at the local level, therefore becomes top-down in nature rather than participatory. Source: http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/ahmedabad/fate-of-6-lakh-people-hangs-in-balance-as-vmc-announces-tp-scheme-at-manjalpur/
  • 10. http://www.thepolisblog.org/2010/02/participatory-budgeting.html
  • 11. Manipulation Therapy Information Consultation Placation Partnership Delegation Citizen control 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TOKENISM TOKENISM CITIZENNON-PART NON-PARTICIPATION CITIZEN CONTROL We’re here presently!!! We aim to reach here!!! Figure 2: Sherry Arnstein's famous ladder of participation Source: adapted from (Arnstein, 1969)
  • 12. LACUNAE  Planning process is generally not very consultative or participatory in India. – Fails in reflecting the aspirations of the community, and – Elite capture of planning process.  Regional plans and development plans fail to achieve their objectives owing to lack of project-linked financial plan to achieve them.  The horizon period for RP/DPS is often twenty or more years – during which period the assumptions, and – population estimates on which the DP is based may change beyond what the projects identified as part of the plan are designed to handle.  Often the infrastructure provision in one TP is done independently of the neighbouring TP resulting in costly repetitions or misses.
  • 13. Funds from the Ward Corporators share in the ULB budget and MP/MLA Local Area Development Scheme (LADS) often end up being used to provide outdoor seating like the ones in the picture. Is this local area development? Credits: CUE-CEPT
  • 14. WHY LOCAL AREA PLANS?  The current DP-TPS framework plans for infrastructure provision only at the scale of around 100-200 hectares at the lowest level.  TP schemes stop at reservation of plots for public purposes and for SEWS housing.  What next is not very clear….  Communities work along neighbourhood (mohalla/sheri) lines. – No working mechanism to guide development at the neighbourhood level.  Local area plans, of a short term, would help identify and implement neighbourhood improvement projects.
  • 15. Communities like to take charge of themselves "Woh toh ho jaayega…main khada kar doonga…aapne mujhe samjhaaya…main dus logon ko samjhaaoonga…who bees aur logon ko samjhaayega…aise ho jaayega". -Rakeshbhai*, 36 On his neighbourhood’s resolve to take care of maintenance work of their SEWS quarters themselves Credits: CUE-CEPT
  • 16. International experiences Indian experiences Pune Delhi The Netherlands United States of America United Kingdom Bangalore
  • 17.  Uses standardized indicators of accessibility.  Focussed on bringing people from the at-risk category to the mainstream by addressing social exclusion (SEU, 2008).  Development of accessibility strategies and plans at the local level by Local Transport Authorities (LTAs).  LTAs prepared Local Transport Plans (LTPs) that identified local priorities and set the transport policy for an area In United Kingdom,  Parameters of evaluation: – Accessibility to schools, colleges, jobs, healthcare, grocer. – Pedestrian access, mode of travel, affordability and attractiveness of destination. The UK EXPERIENCE
  • 18. The UK EXPERIENCE Figure 3: Key inputs and processes in accessibility planning Source: (Chapman & Weir, 2008)
  • 19.  Highly variable approach to accessibility planning across larger metropolitan areas (Chapman & Weir, 2008).  Transport planning agencies are encouraged to consider accessibility planning.  Focus has been on achieving equality of opportunity and access to services through transportation equity.  Responsibility of Metropolitan Planning Organizations – Accessibility assessments and scenario building, – measure the effects of transport investments on at-risk communities.  Accessibility indicators used are: – percentage of the population able to travel between work and home within 45 minutes during peak hours, and – percentage of retail and service jobs accessible in 45 minutes by car and public transport. The USA EXPERIENCE
  • 20.  Equal emphasis given to accessibility and mobility with focus on reducing avoidable car mobility.  Avoids use of accessibility measures totally. – relies on a regulatory mechanism of allocating land use and activities.  A-B-C location policy- ‘the right business in the right place’ – applies across national, provincial and local levels of government. – Shops are located ideally in areas grade ‘A’, – offices in ‘A’ and ‘B’ areas, and – ‘C’ areas are allocated to businesses that are extensively dependent on transport (Table 1). – Parking places in locations ‘A’ and ‘B’ are limited in order to enforce the policy (Chapman & Weir, 2008) The DUTCH EXPERIENCE
  • 21.  Equal emphasis given to accessibility and mobility with focus on reducing avoidable car mobility.  Avoids use of accessibility measures totally. – relies on a regulatory mechanism of allocating land use and activities.  A-B-C location policy- ‘the right business in the right place’ – applies across national, provincial and local levels of government. – Shops are located ideally in areas grade ‘A’, – offices in ‘A’ and ‘B’ areas, and – ‘C’ areas are allocated to businesses that are extensively dependent on transport (Table 1). – Parking places in locations ‘A’ and ‘B’ are limited in order to enforce the policy (Chapman & Weir, 2008) Mobility characteristics A-location B-location C-location Work intensity Intensive Average Extensive Car dependency for business trips Low Average High Visitor’s intensity Intensive Average Incidental Dependence on freight transport Low Average High The DUTCH EXPERIENCE Table 1 : Matching accessibility and mobility profiles Source: (Chapman & Weir, 2008)
  • 22. Ward Works Campaign (2001)  City-wide campaign , aimed at giving citizens a voice in deciding how the municipal budget should be spent. Public Record of Operation and Finance (PROOF, 2002)  City-wide campaign, aimed at improving financial transparency with citizen participation and enhance government accountability . Ward Vision Campaign (2003)  aimed at creating a three-year vision for the ward, identifying problems and solutions, estimating costs and potential revenues etc. to be given to the ULB. Ward Infrastructure Index (2010, 2013)  City-wide exercise, creation of a citizen centric quality of life index that measures outcomes of public infrastructure and services at a household level. BANGALORE: JANAAGRAHA
  • 23. “Change your ward to change the world” • Citizens participation enlisted in 10 wards, • Led by the community themselves, • Neighbourhood based approach. • The Porto Allegre inspiration, • Four months – 100 wards of the BMP, • Active participation in 32 wards, • 22 wards saw inclusion of citizen’s priorities in ward plan, • Mobilization > Training > Surveying > Prioritization > Monitoring (ward sabhas) Ward Vision Campaign (2003) Ward Works Campaign (2001) Source: Clay (2007), Raman (2006)
  • 24. • Good communication strategies, • Posters and invites in Urdu, Tamil apart from Kannada, • GDs held where well-informed participants took part, • Series of five workshops to identify, prioritize and budget for projects. Ward Vision Campaign (2003) (contd) • 198 wards of BBMP covered, • Evaluation on basis of parameters concerning water supply, environment, sanitation, mobility, etc. (see table) • Indicators weighted on basis of their importance to Quality of Life (QOL). Ward Infrastructure Index (2010,2013) Source: Clay (2007), Raman (2006)
  • 25. Table 2 : Categories and indicators for the Ward Infrastructure Index Source: Clay (2007)
  • 26. Figure 4: A snapshot of maps generated as output from Ward Infrastructure Index Source: Janaagraha website
  • 27.  Participatory budgeting – Initiated in 2006-07 by National Society of Clean Cities+CEE+Janwani.  CEE prepared toolkit and helped build capacity,  Janwani helped in management and organization of meetings,  In meetings, people were asked to choose from a list of projects supplied in a booklet with costing,  Separate preference forms for slum and non-slum areas,  Volunteers as facilitators of meetings. PUNE: PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING Picture 1: A Janwani invite for people to partake in the PB process – 2013 Source: http://janwani.org/site/projects/participatory- budgeting-2014-2015/ Source: (Janwani, 2011)
  • 28.  Participatory budgeting (contd): – Initially INR 20 lakhs with INR 5 lakhs for slum areas was fixed as outlay. – No single project could exceed INR 5 lakhs. – Projects included streetlights, pavements, bus stops, parks etc. – Subsequent years have seen an increase in the outlay. – Open discussion on budgets made public aware. – The number of participants declined to 600 in 2013. o Mistrust and fatigue major reasons. PUNE: PARTICIPATORY BUDGETING 18 Cr. 39.6 Cr. 2007-08 2013-14 Figure 5: PMC budgetary allocation through PB Source: (Janwani, 2011)
  • 29.  Initiated in 2012 by Janwani + Parisar + College of Engineering, Pune.  Project planned for three months - quality of life determined through surveys in neighbourhoods.  The team consisted of volunteers and researchers who wnet about mapping the available facilities.  Discussions were organized with participants to gauge their perception of QoL in their neighbourhood.  In these discussions, SWOT analysis were performed.  Each issue that came up was converted into micro-projects.  At the end of each stage, documentation of issues, processes, outcomes and proposals was carried out.  PMC refused to take ownership of the process. PUNE: LOCAL AREA PLANNING Source: (Janwani, 2011)
  • 30. Source: http://janwani.org/site/projects/lapp-project/ JANGLI MAHARAJ ROADSHANIWAR-NARAYAN PETH
  • 31. SHANIWAR-NARAYAN PETH JANGLI MAHARAJ ROAD Source: http://janwani.org/site/projects/lapp-project/
  • 32. ALONG METRO CORRIDOR AT KARVE ROAD Source: http://janwani.org/site/projects/lapp-project/
  • 33. Figure 6: Methodology followed as part of the Delhi LAP effort (Source: (EPC and SVC, 2008), (EPC and TRF, 2007),  Delhi Local Area Plan an interface between macro-level plans (master plan, zonal plan) and micro-level plans.  Agenda: – Preparation and implementation of area specific building bye-laws, – Allotment of plots for public purposes, – Reservation of land for sale by ULB, – Laying and relaying of roads, and – Extension, alteration and proposing new roads. THE DELHI EXPERIENCE Delineation Declaration of intent Preparation of base map Study and analysis Identification of problems Urban design proposals Formulating DCRs Implementation
  • 34. The Delhi LAP initiative suffered from: 1. Mistrust of MCD among citizens, 2. Lack of institutional capacity in MCD, 3. Delineation issues, 4. Data gaps during cadastral map preparation, and 5. Consensus building among stakeholders difficult. THE DELHI EXPERIENCE Map 1: Location of local area plans attempted in Delhi Source: (EPC and SVC, 2008), (EPC and TRF, 2007), Ballimaran LAP (Heritage) Sangam Vihar LAP (Old dilapidated) Vasant Vihar LAP (Already developed) Yusuf Sarai (City periphery) Not to scale http://goo.gl/vwUfZQ
  • 35. LOCAL AREA PLANNING ALONG TOZ CORRIDOR ( S U B J E C T O F A S E PA R AT E S E S S I O N L AT E R I N T H E DAY ) AHMEDABAD
  • 36. A COMPARISON Indicators UK USA The Netherlands Pune Bangalore Delhi Spatial focus Urban & Rural Urban & Rural Urban Urban Urban Urban Used for development planning    X X Partially Accessibility focus    X X  Land use-transport integration    X X X Type of modes Walk, Bicycle, PT Car, PT Car, PT X X X Used for transport planning    X X X Clarity of stakeholders Local implementa tion, national monitoring Local implementa tion, national monitoring Local implementa tion, national monitoring Local Implementa tion, No monitoring No ownership, No Implementa tion Confusion in roles Capacity Building     X X Participatory budgeting     Attempted X Project identification  X X    Social impacts assessed   X X X X Evaluation & monitoring     X X Source: (CUE-CEPT, 2013)
  • 37. LEARNING  The UK and USA (along with New Zealand) have used accessibility parameters to prepare local area plans.  This approach is data-intensive and is based on annual updating of travel-behaviour data collected as part of surveys.  The Bangalore and Pune examples of local area planning and participatory budgeting depended largely on people's participation.  Delhi made use of Resident Welfare Associations (RWAs) to help identify and implement urban design programs.  The Indian experiences suffered from the lack of up- to-date information in the form of maps and revenue records.
  • 38. International experiences BUZZWORDS Indian experiences Bengaluru Pune DelhiParticipation USA UnitedKingdom Accessibility TheNetherlands
  • 39. Accessibility may be defined as “the extent to which the land use transport system enables groups of individuals or goods to reach activities or destinations by means of a combination of transport modes.” Geurs and van Eck, (2001, p.35)
  • 40. WHY ACCESSIBILITY?  Accessibility helps focus the planning process on the requirement and context of travel by considering the location, design and delivery of services,  It provides a method for assessing access equity as it considers the needs of all groups, including those considered vulnerable to exclusion,  It encourages coordination between transport and other public policy objectives like health & education,  It helps in evaluating the impacts of land-use projects or transport service changes, enabling the social implications of these to be fully assessed, and  It has the ability to deliver positive economic and social (and environmental) community outcomes.
  • 41. Participation may be defined as “the process through which people with an interest (stakeholders) influence, share or control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources that affect them.” AfDB, (2001, p.2)
  • 42.  Use of participatory techniques of planning can have cross- cutting benefits through the addressing of issues such as – sustainable poverty reduction, – gender equity, – capacity building of community based organizations (CBOs) and – better governance.  Improvements in project design as a result of participation: – stakeholder priorities, and – ground realities by drawing on local knowledge. AfDB (2001)  Additionally, participatory planning helps verify the appropriateness of the proposed interventions besides strengthening stakeholder commitment and ownership.  Greater interface between the government and the governed. WHY PARTICIPATION?
  • 43. * Not used in Rajkot LAP Tools for ParticipatoryLAP Participatory Research Transectwalk Participatory interviews Mapping Ranking Time and trend analysis Participatory Meetings Focus group discussions Brainstorming/ workshop Participatory Planning SWOT Objective Oriented Project Planning* Participatoryactivity planning Targetgroup exchangevisits* Figure 10: Overview of participatory tools used in proposed LAP methodology Source: adapted from (AfDB, 2001)
  • 44. LOCAL ACCESSIBILITY PLANS are LOCAL AREA PLANS prepared with emphasis on people's accessibility to activities they would like to partake in, transcending barriers that may be physical, temporal, social or economic in nature.
  • 45. Land use (Compatibility etc) • Clinics • Intermediate hospitals • General (civil) hospitals 3rd Quartile Walk trips Mean Walk trips 1st Quartile Walk trips 3rd Quartile Cycling trips Mean Cycling trips 1st Quartile Cycling trips • Pre-primary schools • Primary schools • Secondary schools • Degree colleges • Engineering/Medical colleges • Community centres (halls) • Libraries and reading rooms • Parks, maidans and playgrounds Healthcare facilities Educational facilities Socio-cultural facilities 500 metres 1300 metres 2000 metres 1000 metres 2700 metres 3700 metres Transport (PT, IPT, NMT) Basic services Source: (CUE-CEPT, 2014)
  • 46. PROPOSED APPROACH  The proposed approach combines accessibility analysis (technical) with participatory analysis (primary interface).  Accessibility analysis: – Helps identify supply-side deficits in availability of services on basis of travel behaviour and standards (UDPFI, etc). – Landuse, transport, social amenities such as schools, hospitals, parks are evaluated on basis of accessibility, – Spatial analysis components of ArcGIS and FlowMAP software used.  Participatory planning: – Helps identify demand-side deficits from the users' perspective. – Participatory techniques such as transect walks, participatory mapping and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) used.
  • 47. 1 F I E L D W O R K 2 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY Source: (CUE-CEPT, 2014) Using technical and participatory methods, identify ISSUES AND POTENTIALS. Break down OBJECTIVES into sub objectives. Device strategies to achieve SUB-OBJECTIVES. Using participatory techniques, help the community evolve a VISION. Also set OBJECTIVES to help evaluate the progress of the plan. Engage consultants/contractors to IMPLEMENT projects monitored by ward sabha. Use planning consultants to devise PROJECTS in order to achieve sub- objectives. Allow community to PRIORITIZE. Understand Envision Strategize Plan Deliver
  • 48. The proposed LAP would be in the following stages:  STAGE 1: Understanding the context – Data collected on: o Landuse: Compatibility of neighbouring landuse, o Transport: Roads, footpaths, street lighting and other enabling means. o Basic services: Water supply, sewerage, solid waste management, and storm water drainage. o Social infrastructure: ˃ Education- Pre-primary, primary, secondary, degree colleges, ˃ Healthcare-Clinics, Intermediate and General hospitals, ˃ Community facilities like halls, parks and library/reading rooms, ˃ Other amenities like Police chowky, police stations and fire stations. – Sources of data include the local government, residents of the ward etc. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
  • 49.  STAGE 2: Visioning Process in consultation with stakeholders: – must engage with representatives from government and community side to encourage ownership, and – vision must be shared and agreed upon by all the stakeholders in the consultation.  STAGE 3: Strategizing in consultation with stakeholders: – Strategies must: o stay true to the underlying philosophy of LAP, o are clear, precise and easily understandable, and o Be effectively implementable. – Participatory approach would breed ownership which would help in the long-term success and continuity of LAP.  STAGE 4 & 5: These need to be followed up with preparation of plans and delivery (consultants can be engaged). PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
  • 50.  It is proposed to bring LAPs at the level of the ward, taking off from where the TPS ends.  DP would produce the macro-level skeletal structure for the city, identifying the direction for future growth and tackling the land-use-transportation issues.  TPS could continue to help integrate new areas into the developing city.  The LAP would, in TPS areas, help in rational and scientific identification of plots for social infrastructure and – integrate them in the new urban fabric during the preparation of TPS itself.  It is proposed to make the DP-TPS/LAP framework a cyclic, mutually responsive and well-linked mechanism that would feed off each other for critical inputs during the preparation of the city’s DP. LAP IN RELATION TO DP
  • 51. THANKS