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Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang
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Confiança alimentar abril 2012 Tim Lang

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  • 1. Sustainable food for sustainable diets?The challenge of ecological public health Tim Lang Centre for Food Policy, City University London, UK. e: t.lang@city.ac.uk Paper to Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, April 11, 2012
  • 2. WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? The Evidence 2
  • 3. Food systems are already failing many: 1.02 billion people hungry in 2009 Developed 15m NENA 42m Asia & Pac 642m SSA LAC 265m 53m
  • 4. Food and NCDs (a familiar story) (WHO Global Status Rep 2010)• Tobacco • Blood pressure• Alcohol • Overweight• Salt • Social gradient• Saturated fats • Raised cholesterol• Trans fats • etc• etc 4
  • 5. Diet-related results (serious)Health outcomes: Associated with:• Cancers • Physical activity• CHD • Fruit and• Diabetes vegetables• etc • Fat • etc 5
  • 6. Diet and cancers: factors advice WCRF/AIRC 2007 report• Body fatness – Be as lean as possible within the normal range of body weight.• Physical activity – Be physically active as part of everyday life.• Foods and drink that promote weight gain – Limit consumption of energy-dense foods. Avoid sugary drinks.• Eat mostly foods of plant origin – Eat mostly foods of plant origin.• Animal foods – Limit intake of red meat and avoid processed meat.• Alcoholic drinks – Limit alcoholic drinks.• Preservation, processing, preparation – Limit consumption of salt. Avoid mouldy cereals (grains) or pulses (legumes).• Dietary supplements – Aim to meet nutritional needs through diet alone.• Breastfeeding – Mothers to breastfeed; children to be breastfed.• Cancer survivors – Follow the recommendations for cancer prevention. 6
  • 7. Planetary Boundaries already exceeded? Source: Rockström, Steffen et al. 2009 7
  • 8. Food’s environmental impact sources: Rayner & Lang World Nutrition April 2012• Modern agriculture = c14% greenhouse gas (GHG) (UN)• Of agriculture-related GHGs (Stern 2007) – animals are responsible for 31% – fertilizers (nitrous oxide: N2O) for 38%.• Meat &dairy = 24% of EU consumers’ impact (EIPRO 2009)• C50% cereals fed to animals. (Steinfeld/FAO 2008)• 15 / 24 world ecosystem services = degraded or unsustainably used – Food is a major source of this degradation (MEA 2005)• Global agriculture uses 70% of all freshwater extracted for human use (WWF Thirsty Crops) 8
  • 9. More....• “Intensive livestock production is probably the largest sector-specific source of water pollution” (UN World Economic and Social Survey 2011)• Intensive water use for food products: (Chapagain Hoekstra 2007): – 200 litres water to produce 200ml milk – 2400 litres water to produce a 150g hamburger• C20th lost c75% genetic diversity of domestic agricultural crops (FAO 1995)• 52% of global wild fish stocks ‘fully exploited’ FAO SOFA 2007 9
  • 10. The Global shift in diet 1970-2000 source: Defra Fd Sec Assessment Jan 2010 p19 10
  • 11. This is a cultural transition!• What we eat• How it is made• Where we buy it• How and where we consume• Food’s meanings not just nutritional impact 11
  • 12. But the economics are fragile The 2007-08 prices spike Is the long drop in prices halted? 12
  • 13. FAO food price index todayhttp://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/wfs-home/foodpricesindex/en/ [accessed April 6 2012]
  • 14. FAO food price index 1990-2012http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/wfs-home/foodpricesindex/en/ [accessed April 6 2012]
  • 15. Volatility ahead? OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2019 prices will be lower than 2008 but higher than before 15 Source: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2010-2019
  • 16. WHAT IS GOING ON? Is this a policy failure? Or the result of policy?Certainly, an evidence-policy MISMATCH 16
  • 17. The legacy of Productionism Science + Technology +Distribution  cut Waste Output rise  Prices fall Affordability rise = Health + Progress 17
  • 18. An old debate: the 3 M’s Fr Gregor Mendel Dr Karl Marx Rev. Thomas Malthus (1822-1884) (1818-1883) (1766-1834) Monk, gardener,Political economist An Essay on the Principle of geneticist 18 Population (1798)
  • 19. C19th Agricultural progressivesSir John Bennet Lawes Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) (1803-1873) agricultural research chemist Rothamsted Giessen
  • 20. Mid C20th change agents: food, health, income & farmSir John Boyd Orr Sir George Stapledon (1880-1971) Elsie Widdowson CH (1882-1960) public health (1908-2000) soil scientist 1st D-G of FAO nutritionist Aberystwyth Cambridge
  • 21. How is current policy addressing the problem? Mainly soft measures But there are emerging discourses 21
  • 22. There is no agreement yet on....• What a sustainable lifestyle is• What sustainable consumption is• What sustainable production is• What sustainable food systems are• What a sustainable diet is 22
  • 23. Measures to address change• Generally ‘soft’ – Labels – Education – Information – Appeals to consumers – Corporate Responsibility• Not working – Fast enough – Deep enough – Even within health, let alone environment 23
  • 24. From the policy perspective, we have:• Tensions between: – Consumerism / environment / market economics – Health / food supply• Nervous politiciansBUT...• Some emerging policy frameworks – EU: SCP, climate change commitments,• Growing recognition by companies and NGOs of need for change 24
  • 25. Agreement on...• Food is a central issue• Sustainability is a real problem• Current lifestyles not sustainable (however measured)• Inaction will increase negative impacts: – Climate change – Water stress/shortage – Natural resource damage – Eco-systems damage. – Human Ill-health 25
  • 26. Some policy responsesLevel of action Policy action LimitationsGlobal High Level Task Force (2008ff); Tends to suffer from LDC focus (little Committee on World Food about the rich and powerful DCs); Security (CFS); Rio+20 (June marginalised by financial crisis 2012)Regional / EU CAP reform CAP2020; Not joined up with health; Sustainable Consumption & marginalised by eurozone crisis; Production (SCP) programme locked into intra-CAP dynamicsNational / UK Food Matters (2008); Food 2030; Emerging structural reviews not Food Business Plan 2011-15; followed up or consolidated into Green Food Project (2011-12) actionSub-national Scotland: SDAP review (2007)  More holistic than England /UK but SNP Food & Drink Scotland. some sector ‘myopia’ (eg alcohol and/Scotland, Wales: Rural + public purchasing sheep)WalesLocal Community food actions; Food Build networks but little influence on Policy Councils; powerful corporate interests 26
  • 27. Sustainable Food: some EU developments 2008-12• Sustainable Consumption-Production & Sustainable Industrial Policy Action Plan (2008)• Suitability of the potential extension of the Ecolabel to food products• European Food Sustainable Consumption Production (SCP) Roundtable (2009-) co-chairs DG Environment & European Food & Feed Trade Associations. Based in FoodDrinkEurope) & supported by JRC.• DG Environment & JRC (2011 -2012): Harmonised framework methodology for the calculation of the environmental footprint of products.• Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe (2011) part of the actions form Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (2010)• 27
  • 28. Sustainable food consumption and production – emerging Govt policy advice in Europe (North)UK 2006 Sustainable Development Commission Sustainable Consumption “I (SDC) & National Consumer Council will if you will” – genericGermany German Council for Sustainable Sustainable Shopping Basket :1990s Development includes food – lists labels and(2008) schemesEU 2008 Sustainable Consumption-Production & Voluntary initiatives – but little Sustainable Industrial Policy Action Plan food focusNetherlands LNV Ministry – Policy outline for achieving Sustainable food production &2009 Sustainable Food consumer educ. campaignsSweden National Food Administration (& Swedish Environmentally friendly food2009 EPA) – notification to EU (withdrawn 2011) choicesUK 2009 SDC, Council of Food Policy Advisors  Recommend defining low Dept Environment Food Rural Affairs (Defra) impact (sustainable) healthy dietNetherlands Health Council for Ministry Economic Affairs, Guidelines Healthy Diet:2011 Agriculture & Innovation Ecological Perspective 28
  • 29. Companies meanwhile are engaging• International companies: – 2002: SAI launched Groupe Danone, Nestlé, Unilever – 2009 (Oct 16): G30 top TNCs initiative Coca-Cola, Tesco, Unilever, News International – 2010: World Economic Forum process (out 2011)• UK companies: – 2007: IGD Food Industry Sustainability Strategy Champions Group focus on low carbon + ethics – 2008: Tesco gives £25m Manchester SCI – 3 retailers’ choice-edit M&S Plan A, Co-operative Group, Waitrose• A product specific approach, not overall diet 29
  • 30. What is meant by Sustainability in policy? It is used by bankers, too! 30
  • 31. Current approach to food sustainability• A tendency to focus on climate change – CO2 is very important ...but....• Downplays biodiversity, water, soil, land, etc• Repeats Productionist emphasis on supply• Downplays culture, consumption ie demand 31
  • 32. Key hotspots show food is more than an environmental challenge• Meat & dairy: – Aspirational (rises + €) but high impact (health + enviro)• Waste: – 30% after consumers buy it (rich countries) – c40% globally at farm level (poor countries)• Inequalities: – Within / between countries (even in EU• Prices: – Failure to internalise full costs – But would consumers pay more? 32
  • 33. Sustainability: an unclear term?• Brundtland report 1987• Triple focus: enviro + society + econ• “meeting needs now without compromising the ability of future generations to meet needs”BUT IS THIS NOW DETAILED ENOUGH?• I think not 33
  • 34. UK Sustainable Development Commission 2011 reportproposed sustainability as a complex set of ‘poly-values’ http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications.php?id=1187Quality Social values• Taste • Pleasure• Seasonality • Identity• Cosmetic • Animal welfare• Fresh (where appropriate) • Equality & justice• Authenticity • Trust • Choice • Skills (citizenship)Environment Health• Climate change • Safety• Energy use • Nutrition• Water • Equal access• Land use • Availability• Soil • Social status/ affordability• Biodiversity • Information & education• Waste reductionEconomy Governance• Food security & resilience • Science & technology evidence base• Affordability (price) • Transparency• Efficiency • Democratic accountability• True competition & fair returns • Ethical values (fairness)• Jobs & decent working conditions • International aid & development 34• Fully internalised costs
  • 35. FAO Sustainable DietsInternational Scientific Symposium, Rome November 3-5, 2010 35
  • 36. The difference this makes• Changes the general policy framework• Resolves nutrition’s intellectual split: – life science, social, eco-nutrition (Lang et al 2009)• Sets new challenges• Resets moral compass• Puts Needs not Wants as food system’s drivers• Helps shape institutional reform 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. The food system, its external influences and outcomes: a flowchart CONTEXT Environmental ‘givens’ Socio-cultural influences, Economic drivers eg eg climate, water, land, eg religion, gender, price, profits biodiversity family SHAPING FORCES Human labour, skills & INSTITUTIONS education INPUTS eg, agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, equipment International Organizations  Research, development, Policy guidelines, advice, etc engineering & technology PRIMARY PRODUCTION Regional bodies  Regulations, farming, fishing, horticulture Social policies law, subsidies, etc PROCESSING & MANUFACTURE National governments Laws, Finance capital regulations, subsidies, etc DISTRIBUTION & LOGISTICS Health, hygiene controls Local governments Laws, eg, national/international, import/export regulations, subsidies, etc Consciousness industries, RETAIL CATERING eg advertising, media eg, supermarkets, shops restaurants, public sector Civil society organisations DOMESTIC FOOD PREPARATION OUTCOMES cultural impact Social impact Health / ill-health Waste & biological outflow eg Energy & material outflow pollutants
  • 39. Where do we go from here? The Ecological Public Health agenda 39
  • 40. We must....• Champion Ecological Public Health as the paradigm (Rayner & Lang 2012)• Rethink diet around environmental limits: – Fork to farm (not farm to fork)• Begin work on EU Sustainable Dietary Guidelines• Help redesign food systems around Sust Diets – Not around reformed production• Be open about the moral dimension: Health is about social progress!• Ask if our institutions are fit for this purpose 40
  • 41. For us professionally....• Ask our professional bodies to engage• Press for our Governments to produce sustainable dietary advice (and at EU)• From CAP Common Sustainable Food Policy• Include all dimensions that shape conditions on which health depends: – Material / bio-physiological / social / cognitive 41
  • 42. To deliver Sustainable Diets meansChange from …to… …with trouble… ahead over…Nutrition Eco-nutrition linking calories withguidelines guidelines carbonFood products Total diet Eco-brand imagesControl green Verifiable Advertising andclaims standards marketingGlobal all year Sustainable Defining sustainabilitysourcing seasonalityLow cost food as Full cost Consumera good accounting expectations 42
  • 43. Conclusions• Food system change is – complex but not incomprehensible – requires multi-level /-sector /-disciplinary work – links the material, biological, cognitive and social• The discourse needs to change• Leadership & incentives are sorely needed• We need to be active• We don’t want change to be forced on us• There is enough evidence for policy to change 43
  • 44. Thank you!t.lang@city.ac.uk 44

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