Jude carroll seminar


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Jude carroll seminar

  1. 1. Teaching international students: effective learning support for all<br /> Jude Carroll <br /> ‘Teaching International Students’ project<br />Oxford Brookes University<br />
  2. 2. What is the Teaching International Students project?<br />Run by the Higher Education Academy<br />Funded through <br />2 year project<br />TIS Team: <br />Janette Ryan, Jude Carroll, Fiona Hyland (ESCalate), Inna Pomerina (Economics), Melodee Beals (History, Classics & Archeology) , Simon Steiner (Engineering) , Malcolm Todd (C-SAP), Ali Dickens (LLAS), Andrea Frank (CEBE), Caprice Lantz (Psychology), Richard Atfield (BMAF), Adam Child & Katherine Lagar, HEA <br />
  3. 3. Some UK numbers … ‘international students’<br />UK: 15% and rising (22.9% increase 2010 UUK)<br />12% of first degree students<br />66% of full-time taught postgraduates; 50% of full-time research degree students (43% of all research postgraduates) <br />“This is no longer a ‘minority’ issue…..”<br />Is this true here? <br />
  4. 4. Not just rising numbers …..<br />Much more diverse previous experiences as learners<br />…from vetting and selecting to mass higher education<br />New reasons for leaving<br />New reasons for coming<br />New goals and motivations<br />For UK HEIs: new reasons?<br />
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  6. 6. Link between numbers & your experiences? <br />Local proportions vary [by region, discipline, level, nationality, …]<br />Cohort characteristics vary<br /> Overall percentages<br /> ‘Blocks’ of one nationality / language group<br /> Percentage of ‘home students’<br />Length of stay / study. Top-up? <br />Enrolled [‘our students’] or exchange? On line / distance? <br />Generalisations about ‘international students’ …. are they helpful?<br />
  7. 7. A few hard truths?<br />Aim for “good teaching” or ‘work-arounds’? <br />No easy answers<br />Loads of shared good practice / evidence-based approaches … much of it overlooked<br />NOT addressing issues does not lead to neutral results<br />“adapt”<br />“accommodate”<br />“adjust”<br />Who needs to change? <br />
  8. 8. Approaches to managing academic cultural diversity<br />Denial ‘I teach. It’s up to them to learn.’<br /> ‘I teach Chemistry. Oxygen is the same everywhere’<br /> ‘I didn’t admit this student who can’t speak English …’<br />‘Repair’‘You fix them and then I’ll teach them’<br /> ‘These students can’t….. They don’t ….. They are not motivated….’<br />Students must adapt‘These students came for a British education’<br /> ‘We do a two week conversion course before they start….’<br /> ‘All our assessments now come with detailed briefs’<br /> ‘Here are six workshops on academic writing’<br />Teachers accommodate and adjust their practice. But….<br />…‘bottom line’ non-negotiable<br /> … must be sustainable, efficient<br />
  9. 9. My guesses: <br />…your students are becoming more diverse [in language and culture]. You will have mixed reactions to this diversity.<br />…all your students will need to adapt to their new educational setting. Some will have significantly more adjustment to make. <br />…you will need to change (or have already changed) how you teach and what you teach and probably, how you think about teaching …. to accommodate cultural and linguistic diversity.<br />…. you and probably your colleagues will have a range of reactions (not all positive) to teaching international students. <br />
  10. 10. Big issues for international students?<br />Language<br />Transition, new academic cultural assumptions and expectations; <br /> standards<br />‘New game, new rules’<br />Engagement and participation<br />‘Support’ and guidance [formal, informal, academic, pastoral, economic, human…..]<br />Application and utility of UK awards<br />
  11. 11. Suggestions: teachers managing cultural/language diversity<br />1. Accept & learn about academiccultural difference<br />2. Support students’ transition & skill development – <br /> Start early and keep going. Teach English.<br />3. Use teaching methods that encourage participation and collaboration<br />4. Create a globally-relevant curriculum<br />5. Anticipate and manage predictable problems(expectations, integration, group work, plagiarism, etc)<br />
  12. 12. You probably already manage these issues … choose one example of your actions & share it<br />Students’ previous learning contexts and expectations being different from a ‘typical’ NI student’s. What do you do?<br />Students’ language development needing particular attention at the beginning. How do you help?<br />Students finding it very hard to participate by speaking and interacting without encouragement. How do you encourage them?<br />Producing graduates for a globally interconnected and diverse world. When and how?<br />Students not easily mixing and seeking out interaction with those they see as ‘different’. Your reaction?<br />
  13. 13. How the Teaching International Students project sets out to help <br />
  14. 14. Foregrounding academic cultural differences and advocating ‘meta-awareness’<br />artefacts ….. how you greet people, what you eat, what you call people<br />cultural norms …. how you resolve an argument<br /> how formal you are with strangers,<br /> how loudly you speak, <br /> how close you stand…… <br /> what makes ‘a convincing argument’. <br />shared, deeply-held beliefs about how things should be….. <br />The same is true for teaching and learning…… but we are less likely to expect the differences or to know about them.<br />
  15. 15. Same words, different artefacts different norms different beliefs<br />Reading<br />Writing<br />Critical<br />‘my own work’<br />Teacher<br />Learning<br />‘Good work’<br />Examination<br />Help<br />Deadline<br />9:00<br />
  16. 16. I tell my students, ‘Call me Jude’.<br />When students ask, I help with study-based issues.<br />I select the issues but the students must find their own answers<br />I want students to discuss, argue, solve problems. What’s their conclusion? .. their argument?<br />I want students to read around, to choose good bits from reading, from lectures, labs….and to weave them together to make an answer. Their answer …. not the answer<br />I call my teacher Dr. xxx<br />A good teacher notices I need help and offers it. <br />A good teacher tells me good answers to good questions.<br />To learn, I must listen to the teacher. Really listen.<br />I read the textbook many many many times. Exam questions and answers are from the textbook. <br />
  17. 17. The important point: from ‘essentialist’ to self-aware and transparent ……<br />Students base their actions and expectations on their previous academic cultural experiences. [‘I expected the UK to be the same….’]<br />You notice surprises and differences as students act upon their assumptions…. As they ask questions, speak, work together, act on your instructions, try and learn….. [‘Cultural bumps’]<br />You learn what your expectations and assumptions are by noting the differences.<br />Then you tell your students explicitly some of those expectations and assumptions. ‘Tell them the rules’<br />
  18. 18. What builds a shared understanding of YOUR academic assumptions?<br />Don’t focus on the artefact[i.e. What teachers are called , ‘Call me Jude’]<br />Specify and describe the normative behaviour (‘the rule’) [‘Teachers and students call each other by first names except when ….’]<br />[Maybe] discuss the underpinning belief [‘Here, first names can make communication easier and more open but does not mean being friends.’]<br />*Telling students the belief does not mean they will adopt the belief – just that they might understand it better.*<br />If following the norm requires specific skills, then telling is not enough.<br />
  19. 19. tools and equipment<br />Suggestion 2:<br />information<br />…academic cultural difference<br />support students’ skill development – especially at first.<br /> Support students’ English.<br />3. Methods to encourage participation<br />4. Globally-relevant curriculum<br />5. Anticipate and manage predictable problems<br />examples<br />motivating reasons<br />Practice the ‘subskills’<br />feedback<br />putting subskills together. Practice<br />time<br />working with an expert to aim high<br />feedback<br />practice<br />
  20. 20. 2. Skill development<br />Many new skills [reading, note making, writing, locating sources, analysis, technical skills, time management…..]<br />Early diagnostics [Student: ‘How am I doing?]<br />Design in practice and feedback<br />Cannot be left to individual teachers: Programme-level planning<br />Start early (but not induction). Keep going ….<br />
  21. 21. ‘….. programme focus’ :<br />‘We don’t have a programme, just a collection of courses’<br />Yet …. everything we know about improving quality and engaging students in their learning relies on having a focus at the level of the PROGRAMME.<br />Radical idea: we could use the needs of international students to develop and encourage a programme approach.<br />
  22. 22. Suggestion 3: <br />…academic cultural difference<br /> … students’ skill development, especially English.<br />Methods to encourage participation<br />Globally-relevant curriculum<br />5. Anticipate and manage predictable problems<br />
  23. 23. 3. Pro-active, teacher-supported participation and engagement<br />Lecturing <br />Seminars<br />Supervision<br />Group work<br />Project work<br />Project groups which pull students together. <br />Note-making<br />Understanding and thinking<br />Active links to assessment<br />Speaking, asking questions, listening to others’ ideas<br />Problem-solving<br />Presenting<br />Using meetings to plan and check progress<br />Agreeing on roles and expectations<br />Effective levels of structure and support<br />Mixing , shared input into final product<br />Drawing upon and using students’ ‘cultural capital’<br />Learning cross-cultural communication skills<br />
  24. 24. The Teaching International Students Project<br />
  25. 25. TIS activities<br />Website with teaching Resources Bank<br />Research database link (IDP, Australia)<br />Outreach activities and partnerships<br />Series of events<br />
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  31. 31. Getting involved<br />Contact internationalisation@heacademy.ac.uk<br />Via website: www.heacademy.ac.uk/internationalstudents<br />
  32. 32. Suggestion 4: <br />…academic cultural difference<br /> … students’ skill development, especially English.<br />3. …. encourage participation by all<br />4. Globally-relevant curriculum<br />5. Anticipate and manage trouble<br />
  33. 33. 4. Globally-relevant curriculum<br />Different for each programme<br />Not just content!<br />Teach and assess cross cultural skills<br />Promote student integration<br />Opportunities? - Introduction activities<br /> - Problems for students to solve<br /> - Reading lists<br /> - Guest speakers<br /> - Research areas<br /> - Library resources<br />
  34. 34. 5. Manage predictable problems<br />Difference is hard. Expect it!<br />Group work is hard. Manage it.<br />Plagiarism is predictable and understandable. Work with that.<br />Students do not integrate spontaneously. Choreograph it. Encourage it. Even assess it?<br />Conflict is inevitable. Develop strategies and help the students develop strategies to manage conflict.<br />It may be your most precious contribution to their future and the global future we all share.<br />
  35. 35. Final word<br />All students find university new<br />Most find it new and hard<br />Many find it new and hard and strange<br />Some find it new and hard and strange and all wrong, really wrong<br />Most succeed. Teach for inclusion and the students will succeed with more ease and less pain …. and so will you.<br />