PROBLEM SOLVING  APPROACH - Selection of Tools and Applications
QUALITY CONTROL AND  QUALITY IMPROVEMENT Time Better Performance Zone of Quality Improvement Sporadic Spike Chronic Waste ...
QUALITY CONTROL AND  QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
QUALITY CONTROL AND  QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
QUALITY CONTROL AND  QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
THE FOUR MAJOR PHASES  OF PROBLEM SOLVING Primary Responsibility Holding the Gains Project definition and Organization Dia...
STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING Project Definition and organization <ul><li>List and prioritize problems </li></ul><ul><li>Define...
<ul><li>Proof of the need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Chronic losses’ ‘Language of money’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project ident...
<ul><li>Diagnostic journey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Time’ ‘Diagnostic skills’ Objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An...
<ul><li>The Remedial Journey  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize overall cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process adequacy ...
APPLICATION FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TOOLS
CUSTOMER COMPLAINT ANALYSIS Customer : AUTOMOTIVE AXELS LIMITED Complaint No.: 006 / 2006-2007 Date of receipt : 02.07.200...
CUSTOMER COMPLAINT ANALYSIS D4. Occur root cause Were used techniques as Brainstorming, Why-why method to identify the roo...
PROBLEM STATEMENT <ul><li>Should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate to the organization performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B...
GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTING  A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>Step1: Discuss how you intend to use the flow diagram. </li></ul><ul><...
GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTING  A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>Step7: repeat steps 4 ,5 and 6 until you reach the last step in the pr...
ANALYSE A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>2.  Examine each Rework Loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would we need to perform these activitie...
ANALYSE A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>3.  Examine each activity symbol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a redundant activity ? </li>...
DIE MANAGEMENT PROCESS DIE ISSUED FOR  PRODUCTION SAMPLE  APPROVAL DIE  CORRECTION BLANKS PRODUCED REJECTION  DETAILS DIE ...
HOW TO BRAINSTORM <ul><li>1. Phrasing the statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
HOW TO BRAINSTORM <ul><ul><li>Review practical rules- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make contributions in turn. </li></ul...
HOW TO BRAINSTORM <ul><li>6. Process ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify each contribution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Com...
CAUSE EFFECT DIAGRAM FOR  PISTON BLOWHOLES / SHRINKAGES
CAUSE EFFECT DIAGRAM FOR  DIE DEPENDENT REJECTIONS
HOW TO CONSTRUCT CAUSE  AND EFFECT DIAGRAM <ul><li>Define clearly the effect or symptom for which the causes must be ident...
HOW TO CONSTRUCT CAUSE  AND EFFECT DIAGRAM <ul><li>5 .  Add causes for each main area. </li></ul><ul><li>Add subsidiary ca...
GENERATING INFORMATION Questions Information Needs Data Communication Analysis
CHECKSHEET FOR TV  COMPONENT FAILURES Components Replaced by Lab Enter a mark for each component replaced. Mark like  the ...
LOCATION PLOT OF CHIPPED ENAMEL RANGE Top (Back)
A CHECKSHEET Notes  Reading taken at 1112 hrs Line stopped between 1310 and 1330 hrs Solder Bath Temperature
GROUPED BAR GRAPH Model
STACKED BAR GRAPH
PIE CHARTS FOR COMPARING PROPORTIONS Eastern Region Western Region
INCONSISTENT VERTICAL SCALES Operating Hours System not available Center A Operating Hours System not available Center B
STRATIFICATION Stratification : Data grouped against different potential causes to determine  the significant problem. Thi...
STRATIFICATION Both the Supplier put together shows a skew ness and out of span. But stratified supplier wise , clearly sh...
THE PAERTO DISTRIBUTION AND  THE ‘AWKWARD ZONE’ Categories 1 N 0 50 100 Cumulative percent of Quality Costs Few Dollars ar...
PARETO TABLE OF ERRORS    ON ORDER FORMS Order Form Item Number of Errors Percent of total Cumulative percent of Total G 4...
PARETO DIAGRAM OF ERRORS  ON ORDER FORMS Useful Many Vital Few 86 100 50 Cumulative Percent of Total 1 2 2 3 3 0
PARETO DIAGRAM OF DIE  DEPENDENT REJECTIONS
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A PARETO DIAGRAM <ul><li>Total the  data on effect of each contributor and sum these to determine the gra...
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A PARETO DIAGRAM <ul><li>6. Draw and label the right vertical axis . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label the axis...
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A PARETO DIAGRAM <ul><li>9.  Analyse the diagram. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for a break point on the cum...
HISTOGRAM Histogram : A Histogram is a Bar chart that shows the central tendency  and variability of a data set. Also call...
TYPICAL PATTERNS OF CORRELATION X Y X Y Strong -Negative Strong -Positive X Y X Y Weak -Positive Weak -Negative X Y X Y Co...
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A SCATTER DIAGRAM <ul><li>Obtain the table of Raw data and determine the high and low values for each var...
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A SCATTER DIAGRAM <ul><li>4. Plot the paired data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use concentric circles to indica...
BOX PLOT A Box plot is sometimes called a Box and Whisker plot and used when  less than 20 Data is available. It shows the...
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Rkfl Problem Solving

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Rkfl Problem Solving

  1. 1. PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH - Selection of Tools and Applications
  2. 2. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT Time Better Performance Zone of Quality Improvement Sporadic Spike Chronic Waste ( An opportunity for improvement ) Original Zone of Quality Control New Zone of Quality Control Worse
  3. 3. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
  4. 4. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
  5. 5. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
  6. 6. THE FOUR MAJOR PHASES OF PROBLEM SOLVING Primary Responsibility Holding the Gains Project definition and Organization Diagnostic Journey Remedial Journey Identified Root Causes Breakthrough in Cultural patterns Implemented solutions Breakthrough in Results Demonstrated control at the New level Breakthrough in Attitudes Breakthrough in Organization Mission Statement and Team Charter Breakthrough in Knowledge
  7. 7. STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING Project Definition and organization <ul><li>List and prioritize problems </li></ul><ul><li>Define project and team </li></ul>Diagnostic journey <ul><li>Analyze symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate theories of causes </li></ul><ul><li>Test theories </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the root causes </li></ul>Remedial Measures <ul><li>Consider alternative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Design solutions and controls </li></ul><ul><li>Address resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Implement solutions and controls </li></ul>Holding the Gains <ul><li>Check performance </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor control system </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Proof of the need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Chronic losses’ ‘Language of money’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Project by Project’ ‘Vital Few’ and ‘Trivial Many’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projects to improve Product salability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Marketing Data’ ‘QARD Data’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizing for improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unification’ Data collection and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Ideas from Workforce’ ‘Size’ ‘Subject’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Responsibility and Benefits’ </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Diagnostic journey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Time’ ‘Diagnostic skills’ Objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of symptom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of theories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing of theories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operator controlled errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadvertent errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Diagnostic tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly used tools </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Remedial Journey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize overall cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process adequacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fool proofing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early warnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural – Stated / Real reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the impact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation for Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers , Workers , Reverse the trend , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QC circle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holding the Gains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed back loop </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. APPLICATION FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TOOLS
  12. 12. CUSTOMER COMPLAINT ANALYSIS Customer : AUTOMOTIVE AXELS LIMITED Complaint No.: 006 / 2006-2007 Date of receipt : 02.07.2007 Complaint Ref.: E_Mail dated 02.07.2007 Type : M&M AVL Product : CROWN WHEEL Nature of Complaint : DEFECTIVE MATERIAL D1. Team / Area Team members who know the product and process related problems Team should from multi disciplinary area and appropriate size Team should have a leader D2. Problem description Problem definition should be clear and permitting its comprehension Should show the quality and magnitude. Should describe where and how occurred the problem Should describe the frequency of occurance D3. Containment action To protect the customer immediately Verify so that there it should not create new problem Products under containment action are identified Applied to similar products
  13. 13. CUSTOMER COMPLAINT ANALYSIS D4. Occur root cause Were used techniques as Brainstorming, Why-why method to identify the root cause, escape root cause, verification of fool proof arrangement by making the failure on and off. D5. Occur permanent Practicality of corrective action, cost time and resource analysis Analysis of possible risks in each analysis Compromising with the chosened action Effectiveness of corrective action D6. Implementation of corrective action Changes documented, pertinent documentation review (FMEA, Tooling drg, Conrol plan, check list, work instruction, visual aids etc..) Effectiveness verified Removal of containment action D7. Preventive action Analysis of corrective action to similar products Preventive action plan to create improvement implementation Define responsibility and time to action implementation D8. Team recognition Motivation of team members engaged with continuous improvement
  14. 14. PROBLEM STATEMENT <ul><li>Should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate to the organization performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be visible , specific , measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be manageable in size and complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should Never </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate the root cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imply solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affix blame </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTING A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>Step1: Discuss how you intend to use the flow diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: Decide on the desired outcome of the session. </li></ul><ul><li>Step3: Define the boundaries of the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Step4: Document each steps in sequence , starting with the first or last step. </li></ul><ul><li>Step5: when you encounter a decision or branch point , choose one branch and continue flow diagramming. </li></ul><ul><li>Step6: if you encounter a segment of the process that is familiar to every one in the room , make a note and continue flow diagramming. </li></ul>
  16. 16. GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTING A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>Step7: repeat steps 4 ,5 and 6 until you reach the last step in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Step8: Go back and flow diagram the other branches from the decision symbol. </li></ul><ul><li>Step9: Review the completed diagram to see if you have missed any decision points or special cases that might cause some work to follow a different process. </li></ul><ul><li>Step10: Discuss how the team will fill in the unfamiliar steps of the process and verify the accuracy of the flow diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 11: when you are sure that the flow diagram is accurate and complete , analyze the chart. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ANALYSE A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>2. Examine each Rework Loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would we need to perform these activities if we had no failures ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long is this rework loop , ( Steps , time lost , resources consumed etc.) ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this rework loop prevent the problem from reoccurring ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine each decision symbol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a checking activity ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a complete check, or do some types of errors go undetected ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a redundant check ? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. ANALYSE A FLOW DIAGRAM <ul><li>3. Examine each activity symbol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this a redundant activity ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the value of this activity relative to it’s cost ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How have we prevented errors in this activity ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Examine each document or data base symbol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this necessary ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is this kept up to date ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a single source for this information ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we use this information to monitor and improve the process ? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. DIE MANAGEMENT PROCESS DIE ISSUED FOR PRODUCTION SAMPLE APPROVAL DIE CORRECTION BLANKS PRODUCED REJECTION DETAILS DIE INSPECTED ON RECEIPT DIE ANALYSIS METHODING CHECK CONDUCT DOE TO UNDERSTAND INTERECTIONS ANOVA PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 2 stages-Dimensional& Metallurgical MACHINE CONDITIONING PROCESS CHECK MODIFY CONTROL PLAN DIE RECON- DITIONING MODIFY TRY OUT PROVE OUT INFORM T.O. YES NO MACHINE PROBLEM DIE PROBLEM REJECTIONS < 5% OK NOT OK OK NOT OK OK NOT OK REJECTIONS > 5% OK NOT OK STORED WITH GREEN TAG
  20. 20. HOW TO BRAINSTORM <ul><li>1. Phrasing the statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad enough for creativity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without leading emphases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Preparing for Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When possible , communicate the statement to participants ahead of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ideal number of participants is between 6 to 8. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate surfaces for listing all contributions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Introducing the session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe and review the four conceptual brainstorming rules- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No criticism or evaluation of any kind. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be unconventional in your thinking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aim for quantity of ideas in a short time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hitch-hike” on other’s ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. HOW TO BRAINSTORM <ul><ul><li>Review practical rules- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make contributions in turn. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only one idea per turn. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You may pass. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not provide explanations of the ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Warming up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct a warm-up session with a neutral subject ( 5 to 10 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe killer phrases and ask for examples. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the issue, and write it where it will be visible to all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have another person write all contributions where they can be seen by all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop before fatigue sets in( 30 to 45 minutes ) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. HOW TO BRAINSTORM <ul><li>6. Process ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify each contribution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine and group similar ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree on evaluation criteria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a list of projects , collect data on severity of problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a list of theories, proceed to the cause and effect diagram. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For proposed remedies , evaluate ideas , keeping in the mind: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost and payback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probability of success, both technological and organizational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a list of obstacles,develop strategies for the serious ones. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. CAUSE EFFECT DIAGRAM FOR PISTON BLOWHOLES / SHRINKAGES
  24. 24. CAUSE EFFECT DIAGRAM FOR DIE DEPENDENT REJECTIONS
  25. 25. HOW TO CONSTRUCT CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM <ul><li>Define clearly the effect or symptom for which the causes must be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the effect or symptom being explained at the right , enclosed in a box.Draw the central spine as a thick line pointing to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Use brainstorming or a rational step by step approach to identify the possible causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the major areas of causes ( not less than 2 and normally not more that 6) should be placed in a bone and connected with the central spine by a line at an angle of about 70 °. </li></ul>
  26. 26. HOW TO CONSTRUCT CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM <ul><li>5 . Add causes for each main area. </li></ul><ul><li>Add subsidiary causes for each cause already </li></ul><ul><li>entered. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Continue adding possible causes until each branch reaches a root cause. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Check the logical validity of of each cause chain. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Check for completeness. </li></ul>
  27. 27. GENERATING INFORMATION Questions Information Needs Data Communication Analysis
  28. 28. CHECKSHEET FOR TV COMPONENT FAILURES Components Replaced by Lab Enter a mark for each component replaced. Mark like the following: I II III IIII Time period: 22.01.02 – 27.02.02 Repair Technician : BOB TV set model 1017 Integrated Circuits Capacitors II Resistors II Transformers IIII Commands CRT I IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII TV set model 1013 Integrated Circuits Capacitors Resistors IIII Transformers IIII Commands CRT I IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII
  29. 29. LOCATION PLOT OF CHIPPED ENAMEL RANGE Top (Back)
  30. 30. A CHECKSHEET Notes Reading taken at 1112 hrs Line stopped between 1310 and 1330 hrs Solder Bath Temperature
  31. 31. GROUPED BAR GRAPH Model
  32. 32. STACKED BAR GRAPH
  33. 33. PIE CHARTS FOR COMPARING PROPORTIONS Eastern Region Western Region
  34. 34. INCONSISTENT VERTICAL SCALES Operating Hours System not available Center A Operating Hours System not available Center B
  35. 35. STRATIFICATION Stratification : Data grouped against different potential causes to determine the significant problem. This tool is very useful when the combined Histogram or a Pareto Chart does not identify one or two significant problem. There does not appear to be a significant difference in contract change among Product divisions but appears to be a significant difference between fiscal Quarters.
  36. 36. STRATIFICATION Both the Supplier put together shows a skew ness and out of span. But stratified supplier wise , clearly shows defect is entirely contributed by Supplier B.
  37. 37. THE PAERTO DISTRIBUTION AND THE ‘AWKWARD ZONE’ Categories 1 N 0 50 100 Cumulative percent of Quality Costs Few Dollars are in Useful many categories The Awkward Zone Most Dollars are in the “Vital few” Categories
  38. 38. PARETO TABLE OF ERRORS ON ORDER FORMS Order Form Item Number of Errors Percent of total Cumulative percent of Total G 44 29 29 J 38 25 54 M 31 21 75 Q 16 11 86 B 8 5 91 D 5 3 95 C 3 2 97 A 1 0.67 98 O 1 0.67 98 R 1 0.67 99 N 1 0.67 99 L 1 0.66 100 I 0 0 100 E 0 0 100 H 0 0 100 K 0 0 100 F 0 0 100 P 0 0 100 Total 150 100 1 2 3
  39. 39. PARETO DIAGRAM OF ERRORS ON ORDER FORMS Useful Many Vital Few 86 100 50 Cumulative Percent of Total 1 2 2 3 3 0
  40. 40. PARETO DIAGRAM OF DIE DEPENDENT REJECTIONS
  41. 41. HOW TO CONSTRUCT A PARETO DIAGRAM <ul><li>Total the data on effect of each contributor and sum these to determine the grand total. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-order the contributors from the largest to the smallest. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the cumulative percent of the total. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example , the cumulative percent of the total through the 5 th contributor is the sum of the effects of the first 5 in the rank ordering, divided by the grand total and multiplied by 100. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draw and label the left vertical axis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label the axes from 0 to the grand total or just beyond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a caption to describe the measure being used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draw and label the horizontal axis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide the axis in to as many divisions as there are contributors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the contributors from largest to smallest, going from left to right. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a caption to describe them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the contributor names are long , label the axis A,B,C etc. and provide a separate key. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. HOW TO CONSTRUCT A PARETO DIAGRAM <ul><li>6. Draw and label the right vertical axis . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label the axis from 0 to 100%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line up 100% with the grand total on the left axis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the caption: ”Cumulative percent total” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Draw bars to represent the magnitude of each contributors effect. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The height of the Bars corresponds to the magnitude of that contribution as measured on the left axis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8. Draw a line graph to represent the cumulative – percent of total. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plotted points corresponds to the cumulative –percent as measured on the right axis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line up the points above the right hand edge of the bars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cumulative percent of the total point for the first ranked contributor should be even with the height of the first bar. If not , you have made an error. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. HOW TO CONSTRUCT A PARETO DIAGRAM <ul><li>9. Analyse the diagram. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for a break point on the cumulative percent graph. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10. Title the chart ; label the “Vital few” and “Useful many”; and show the cumulative percent contribution for the vital few. </li></ul>
  44. 44. HISTOGRAM Histogram : A Histogram is a Bar chart that shows the central tendency and variability of a data set. Also called as frequency distribution. It helps to understand the total variability of a process. Quickly and easily determines the underlying distribution of the process.
  45. 45. TYPICAL PATTERNS OF CORRELATION X Y X Y Strong -Negative Strong -Positive X Y X Y Weak -Positive Weak -Negative X Y X Y Complex None
  46. 46. HOW TO CONSTRUCT A SCATTER DIAGRAM <ul><li>Obtain the table of Raw data and determine the high and low values for each variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which variable will be plotted on the horizontal axis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the suspected cause on the horizontal axis if showing a cause effect relationship. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draw and label the horizontal and vertical axes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the axis roughly the same length , creating a square plotting area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label the axis in about 6 convenient multiples of 1 ,2 or 5. Make the lowest label slightly less than the low value , and the highest label slightly greater than the high value for each variable. The data should fill the plotting area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label increasing values from bottom to top on the vertical axis and left to right on the horizontal axis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a caption to describe the measurement and it’s units. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. HOW TO CONSTRUCT A SCATTER DIAGRAM <ul><li>4. Plot the paired data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use concentric circles to indicate identical paired data points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use filled and unfilled symbols to show the strata. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Title the chart and provide other appropriate notations. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Identify and classify the pattern of correlation. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Check for potential pitfalls in your analysis , consider confounding factors and other possible explanations for the correlation pattern , and decide on the team’s next steps. </li></ul>
  48. 48. BOX PLOT A Box plot is sometimes called a Box and Whisker plot and used when less than 20 Data is available. It shows the changes in process measurement Over time. It is similar to the Run chart however it gives you the variability of the process. It helps to get a detailed picture of trends and variability Over time. It also recognizes change in the process. Hardness of Piston Blanks
  49. 49. THANK YOU
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