CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND AFRICAN AGRICULTURE GRANTEE CONVENING 24-25 February 2011Cocoa Carbon Initiative - GhanaNature Conservation Research Centre Dr. Winston Asante NATURE CONSERVATION RESEARCH CENTRE Conserving the Environment; Developing Communities. 0
Brief Background of the InstitutionNature Conservation Research Centre • Leading NGO in West Africa in PES and carbon space. • Developing 1st African Centre of Excellence in Applied PES with 12 in-house specialists. • Facilitating forest and agriculture carbon finance projects in Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Sierra Leone. • Considering increasing its reach to provide support to emerging projects in East Africa. 1
Other climate change projectsCarbon Map of Ghana• Collaboration with FC, Oxford, NASA, FT, & research bodies• Supports Ghana’s national REDD readiness MRV effort• Produced freely available 100m resolution carbon map• Relationship between in situ biomass density and remote sensing characteristics.Nyankamba REDD+• Aims to avoid deforestation and degradation plus promote carbon stock enhancement and conservation through implementation of community/farmer CREMA• 240,000 ha of savanna woodland in Ghana’s Northern Region• Major seasonal wildlife corridor between 2 large national parks• PIN submitted to BioCF, currently addressing gaps and moving towards support for PDD. 2
Objectives of the Rockefeller Foundation GrantWork with Ghanaian cocoa farmer organizations to:• Increase their capacity to access carbon finance,• Create the basic conditions for private investment in activities that mitigate carbon emissions,• Enhance farmer livelihoods 3
Key Activities Related to the Grant1) Defining the general cocoa carbon strategy and assessing its feasibility.• Moving forward at Bonsam Bepo site: drivers of deforestation, boundaries, ,• Defining farm-level activities• On-going pre-feasibility assessment2) Engaging with key cocoa sector stakeholders and likely partners to guage potential roles and modes of partnership.• CREMA development: 13 community-level committees, moving to Board establishment• Engagement with farmer associations and licensed buying companies3) Building capacity and supporting an enabling environment for REDD+ and carbon finance at the national level.• 3 trainings / capacity building workshops on key technical and policy issues• Analysis of legal and policy environment for REDD+• Development of the Carbon Map• Extensive collaboration with FC- Climate Change Unit 4
Highlight on the Progress to dateFebruary- launch of the Carbon MapFebruary- land-use modeling and carbon stock mapping training. Bonsam Bepo site was main example in this trainingJanuary- assessment of REDD+ / Agricultural carbon methodologies for Bonsam Bepo siteNovember- exercise to define project boundaries based on traditional boundaries, district boundaries, cocoa system patterns, and forest boundariesOctober- workshop on REDD+ architecture and sub-national options to support inclusions of projects under national strategyJune- field training on measuring and assessing carbon stocks in forest & agro ecosystems at Bonsam Bepo site 5
Early Findings from Key ActivitiesLegal and Policy Analysis of Tree & Forest Carbon• Existing legal frame-work prioritizes economic exploitation for State’s benefit• Farmers and forest-based communities have few legal, economic, customary incentives to maintain trees and forests.• Carbon needs legal & policy definition• Examples of benefit sharing arrangements provide examples of how carbon benefits can be managed.• Before REDD/Agric carbon can be realized need to address poor forest stewardship and governance, perverse policy incentives, weak law enforcement, land disputes and conflicts.Carbon Map of Ghana• Provide 1st total biomass carbon stock for country.• Site level preliminary carbon stocking figures for feasibility work• Extrapolation of the map is currently informing a redefinition of Ghana’s forest. 6
Key Challenges• Assessing carbon stocks and baseline in a complex mosaic landscape• Building awareness and understanding of farm-level sampling of carbon, avoiding misconceptions• Heightened expectation of carbon credits and benefits• Need to harmonize land and tree tenure in project area• Finding multiple farmer organization “partners” who can bring necessary scale of aggregation to project site 7
Lessons Learnt• Need to progress cautiously in-view of community expectation of carbon credits and REDD. Failure to deliver can cause significant problems.• Need for detailed demonstration of carbon sampling during community engagement.• CREMA boundaries demarcated according to harmonized land tenure arrangements.• Ground level monitoring of carbon stocks likely to be critical component of MRV 8
Emerging Opportunities for Collaboration• Unprecedented collaboration between the govt FC and NCRC• Sense of ownership of the C mapping process by State agencies and ministries.• Cocoa buying companies and financial institutions seriously seeking pathway to engage in agriculture and carbon-based finance.• New climate-focused certification options (SAN Climate Module)• Emerging technology for carbon stock monitoring (Helveta) 9
Next steps• Detailed carbon sampling of cocoa farm dynamics and shade levels so as to enable distinction between cocoa farms w/shade, w/out shade, and forests using remote sensing.• Detailed technical/economic assessment of project activities• Complete Project Idea Note (PIN)• Begin development of Project Design Document (PDD)• On-going CREMA development activities• Design benefit sharing mechanisms with stakeholders• Policy Briefs: Institutional arrangements on MRV- challenges, lessons learned and recommendations from the Carbon Map experience• Draft working paper on CREMAs, REDD and benefit sharing 10
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