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Climate and cities

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  • 1. Local Climate Solutions for Africa 2011Cape Town, 27th February - 3rd MarchSession C1: Resilient Cities Climate Change and African Cities: vulnerability, poverty and the role of community- community-based adaptation Dr David Dodman david.dodman@iied.org International Institute for Environment and Development www.iied.org
  • 2. Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability in Urban Areas[Source: Parry et al (2009). ‘Overshoot, adapt and recover’. Nature 458, 30 April 2009.]
  • 3. Vulnerability to Climate ChangeThe degree to which a system is susceptible to, andunable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change,including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability isa function of the character, magnitude, and rate ofclimate change and variation to which a system isexposed, sensitivity,exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity. capacity.
  • 4. Cities at Risk: what makes cities vulnerable? UNFCCC commits developed countries “to assist developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting costs of adaptation to those adverse effects” – but what is “particularly vulnerable”? • No agreed measure of vulnerability (or adaptation) • ‘Exposure’ does not take social / economic characteristics into account • LDCs or low HDI do not take biogeographical characteristics into account • Technical and Political challenge
  • 5. Cities at Risk: what makes cities vulnerable?i) Cities in geographically sensitive locations (exposed to hazards) (exposedii) Cities with physical and social sensitivity (population, governance)iii) Cities with lower levels of adaptive capacity (ability of stakeholders to cope and change)iv) Cities that have contributed little to the problem of climate change (low emissions) Tudor Settlement, Mombasa, Kenya
  • 6. Major Case Studies on Urban Climate Change Impacts[Source: Hunt A, Watkiss P (2011). ‘Climate change impacts and adaptation in cities: areview of the literature’ Climatic Change 104: 13-49]
  • 7. “... tools for urban climate impact assessment are lacking... most existing analyses investigate only the physical vulnerability of cities to the direct impacts of weather and climate events” Hallegatte and Corfee-Morlot (2011, p5) Corfee-[Source: Hunt A, Watkiss P (2011). ‘Climate change impacts and adaptation in cities: areview of the literature’ Climatic Change 104: 13-49]
  • 8. Social Aspects of Exposure to Climate ChangeHarare,Zimbabwe Who lives or works in the locations most exposed to hazards related to the direct or indirect impacts of climate change? Who lives or works in locations lacking the infrastructure that reduces risk? Whose homes and neighbourhoods face greatest risks when impacts occur?
  • 9. Gender, Age and Vulnerability• damage to homes and neighbourhoods often affects women’s incomes more (income- (income- earning activities often undertaken at home)• vulnerability from child-rearing and domestic child- responsibilities (access to food, water, sanitation)• vulnerability from relocation: lack of safety and security in temporary accommodation• very young and elderly more affected by water- water- borne / water-washed diseases, malnutrition, lack water- of mobility, psychological impacts
  • 10. Policy Responses: Mitigation in Cities • important: most urban growth will be in low- low- income countries • city planning and governance can de-link de- development from CO2 emissions • but must ensure that this does not impose additional burdens on vulnerable groups Iloilo, Philippines
  • 11. Reducing energy consumption in low-income households low-(e.g. Witsands, South Africa) Witsands,
  • 12. Adaptation to Climate Change“Adaptation can significantly reduce many potentiallydangerous impacts of climate change and reduce the risk ofmany key vulnerabilities. However, the technical, financialand institutional capacity, and the actual planning andimplementation of effective adaptation, is currently quitelimited in many regions”IPCC Fourth AssessmentChapter 19: Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risks from Climate Change
  • 13. Adaptation to Climate Change: Improving Infrastructure [Source: Tiempo (2006)]
  • 14. Adaptation to Climate Change: Improving Infrastructure[Source: Jabeen et al. (2009)]
  • 15. Tandale, Tandale, Dar es SalaamAdaptation: Supporting Coping Strategies
  • 16. Community Based Adaptation• based on the premise that local communities have the skills, experience, knowledge and networks to undertake locally appropriate activities to increase resilience• generates adaptation strategies through participatory processes involving local stakeholders• builds on existing cultural norms and addresses local development issues that underlie vulnerability• potential in urban areas: both under-stated and over-stressed
  • 17. Social and Political Implications of Adaptation• cannot separate adaptation to ‘climate change’ from adaptation to other environmental hazards• NAPAs (National Adaptation Programmes of Action): often have little focus on urban areas• rigorous building and infrastructure standards: potentially costly and inappropriate?• vulnerability and risk mapping: legitimating removal of informal settlements?
  • 18. Addressing Vulnerability and RiskKey Responses: building adaptive capacity• in tens of thousands of towns and cities around Africa and the world• working with reduction of risks to other environmental hazards and building on experiences of reducing disaster risk• developing strong local knowledge base of climate variability and change• encouraging actions that reduce risks now, while now, recognizing importance of measures for long-term long-• with a strong pro-poor orientation pro-
  • 19. Addressing Vulnerability and RiskKey Responses: institutions and governance• supporting adaptation in rural areas• integrating (where appropriate) with mitigation• building competence and accountability of local authorities and changing their relationship to low- low- income urban residents• recognizing complementary roles of higher levels of government and international agencies• encouraging and supporting contributions of individuals, households, community organizations, private sector
  • 20. Local Climate Solutions for Africa 2011Cape Town, 27th February - 3rd MarchSession C1: Resilient Cities Climate Change and African Cities: vulnerability, poverty and the role of community- community-based adaptation Dr David Dodman david.dodman@iied.org International Institute for Environment and Development www.iied.org