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    Adapting to climate change Adapting to climate change Document Transcript

    • jotoafrika adapting to climateIssue 7 August 2011 change in AfricaCONTENTSThe future of pastoralism in a changing The future of pastoralism in a changing climateclimate 1Adapting pastoralism to a changingclimate 2Coping with drought in Niger 3Grazing management as an adaptation Editorialmeasure 4 This issue of Joto Afrika provides researchUsing Mbororo herders’ traditional findings, lessons learnt and success storiesknowledge 5 from across Africa.Vulnerability in Ethiopias pastoral Pastoralism is a free-range livestockcommunities 6 production system. It is practised in all Key messages include:Letters to the editor 7 of Africa’s dryland regions, and in someLivestock insurance in northern Kenya 8 communities it is the main source of food Recognise the multiple processes and security and income. But will pastoralism stressors that govern the vulnerability survive in the changing climate? of pastoralists to climate change. Pastoralists are suffering from the effectsAbout Joto Afrika of climate change; policy makers andJoto Afrika is a series of printed briefings and Statistics from African Union’s policy framework for pastoralism (2010) show that development agencies must be sensitiveonline resources about adapting to climate to this. They should also respond to thechange in sub-Saharan Africa. The series there are 268 million pastoralists. They live other non-climate stressors that affectwill help people understand the issues, and move on 43 percent of Africa’s land pastoralism.constraints and opportunities that poor people mass and contribute between 10 to 44 perface in adapting to climate change and cent of the Gross Domestic Product in the Protect pastoral land and enhanceescaping poverty. countries that they live in. the mobility of pastoralists and their livestock. Pastoralists have coped with Pastoralism has immense potential for climate stressors for a long time, usingJoto Afrika is Swahili; it can be loosely reducing poverty, generating economic mobility strategies for the sustainabletranslated to mean ‘Africa is feeling the heat’. management of dryland vegetation andThe next issue will focus on climate change growth, managing the environment, promoting sustainable development, and water resources. This strategy needs toand energy. be enhanced through appropriate land- building climate resilience. The 2010 African use policy frameworks.Please tell us what you think about this Union’s policy framework recognised thisseventh issue of Joto Afrika and what you importance. Consider index-based livestockwould like to read about in future issues - insurance schemes as one of thecontact details are on page 8. But despite these positive aspects, strategies for protecting livestock pastoralists are experiencing rapid changes keepers against climate risks. Lessons in their environment and welfare as a result coming from pilot livestock insurance of the changing climate. The incidences of schemes should be considered before severe, back-to-back droughts are rising, repeating and up-scaling. resulting in the deaths of large livestock Invest in building the capacity of numbers as pastures and water sources pastoralists. Education and training dry out. In addition, human populations programmes enhance pastoralists’ and settlements are increasing, taking up skills and help them to diversify traditional grazing areas and competing their enterprises, improve resource for water resources. Pastoralists are also management, and take up employment suffering from occasional but severe floods. opportunities. These must be strengthened through appropriate financial Such upheavals are taking place under support and policy interventions. an inadequately developed service infrastructure, with poor market linkages and Eric Kisiangani weak, unprepared institutions. Pastoralists Climate Change Adaptation Unit, Practical are becoming increasingly marginalised. Action Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya Tel +254 710712752 The future of pastoralism in the changing eric.kisiangani@practicalaction.or.ke climate is the subject of national and global ekisia@gmail.com discussions. The concerns are catalysing the scientific community to generate knowledge Mahmoud Abdel Aziz and share experiences and best practices Department of Animal Production, Alexandria Women in search for pasture and water for their University, Egypt animals in Kyuso, Kenya. © Kimathi Tony, 2011 that may offer solutions for the survival of pastoralism and the millions of people Tel +966 50 871 6707 dependant on this livelihood. Fassad9@yahoo.com mabdelaziz@kfu.edu.sa
    • Adapting pastoralism to a changing climate Research summaryEnclosures made of dried twigs and stones protect small ruminantsfrom the scorching sun in Kenya’s Chalbi Desert. © Oseni SaiduPastoralism is complex; it seeks to Pastoral systems contribute significantly Saidu Osenimaintain a balance between pastures, to national and regional economies, START African Climate Change Fellow,livestock and people, in uncertain with many countries exporting meat and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife,and variable environments, where other livestock products. Pastoralists Nigeriaalternative land uses are risky. The also maintain cooperative and economic soseni@yahoo.co.ukincreased frequency of extreme weather relations with settled communities alongevents in the tropics – especially floods their mobile routes. Bockline Bebeand droughts – may overwhelm the Department of Animal Sciences, Egertonexisting resilience of pastoral systems. Intervention strategies University, Njoro, KenyaThis raises questions about their With respect to climate change adaptation, obebeb@yahoo.comsustainability. intervention strategies to support pastoralists should be geared towards This work on pastoralism and climateClimate change and climate variability are building adaptive capacity and resilience change adaptation was supported throughcreating increasingly vulnerable conditions in in pastoral communities, through the the Climate Change Adaptation in Africafragile pastoral ecosystems. Changes in land following steps: (CCAA) programme, funded by the DFIDtenure and agriculture, and sedenterisation and the IDRC, with coordination by START,(the settling of groups), are also fracturing develop policies that provide Washington, DC.large-scale pastoral ecosystems into isolated pastoralists with opportunities tosystems. practice mobile livelihoods enhance and secure pastoralists’Debates about pastoralists access to strategic resources – See also essential if they are to respondTwo opinions prevail about the impacts Vulnerability of worldwide effectively to climate changeof climate change on pastoralists. Some reverse policies that contribute to their pastoralism to global changesexperts argue that pastoralists will be among marginalisation, such as forced settling and interdisciplinary strategiesthe first groups to lose their livelihoods, as give pastoralists opportunities to to sustainable pastoralism, by S.rangelands and water points dry up. Others participate in decision-making for Dong, L. Wen, S. Liu, X. Zhang, J.P.insist that pastoralists are the best equipped policies that are connected to their Lassoie, S. Yi, X. Li, J. Li and Y. Li,to adapt to climate change, since their livelihood Ecology & Society 16(2):10, 2011livelihood strategies are honed to respond promote pastoralists’ resilience toto scarce and variable natural resources, droughts by developing livestock Pastoralism Information Note 5.and to cope with uncertain agro-ecological markets, defending communal land Pastoralism and Climate Change, by tenure, good governance and respect J. Morton, Natural Resources Institute,conditions. for pastoral rights University of Greenwich, 2010 scale-up and fully implement livestock http://bit.ly/nPyOqyFurthermore, these authors argue that disaster insurance schemes forpastoralists’ adaptation capacities have been pastoralists: this can prevent a Index-based livestock insurance.eroded as a result of their historical and downward slide of vulnerable pastoral Protecting pastoralists againstsocial marginalisation. They conclude that populations due to climate threats mortality loss due to severe foragetheir vulnerability to climate change is more research appropriate dissemination scarcity, by A. Mude, Internationala consequence of this marginalisation, rather pathways for climate information and Conference on ‘The Future ofthan climate impacts. The threats of climate climate impacts to pastoralists and Pastoralism in Africa’, Addis Ababa,change are seen as related to the diminishing stakeholders, involved in policy-making 21–23 March 2011.capacity of pastoralists to use their adaptive and service provision.capacities.So climate change is a double-edgedsword; it focuses attention on the potentialcatastrophes facing pastoral areas, but mayalso distract attention from the policy and Talk to usgovernance problems that hinder pastoral Please tell us what you think about thisdevelopment, and also prevent pastoralists seventh issue of Joto Afrika and whatfrom adapting to climate change. you would like to read in future issues – contact details are on page 8.This marginalisation is partly because the truevalue of pastoralism is poorly understood. The next issue will focus on energy.Several authors have described a detailedevaluation procedure, which identifiespastoralism as the dry lands’ ‘invisible asset’.Page 2
    • Coping with drought in Niger Research summaryA pastoral boy herds cattle in south-west Niger. © Stevie Mann(ILRI), 2005Livestock are a store of wealth for Some people eat less, giving priority Investment in index-based livestockpastoralists, and play an important to children under 5 years, pregnant insurance schemes will minimise therole in drought mitigation and risk- women and nursing mothers. risks faced by pastoralists duringcoping strategies. However, droughts of Some families send members to work droughts.increasing frequency and severity are elsewhere, especially in urban centres,threatening the pastoralist way of life. and in neighbouring countries including Augustine A. Ayantunde Nigeria and Benin. ILRI, B.P. 320, Bamako, MaliPastoralism and agro-pastoralism are the Pastoralists rely more on assistance Tel +223 20223375dominant livestock production systems in from family and close relations in the a.ayantunde@cgiar.orgmost parts of sub-Saharan Africa’s arid community who are relatively rich, andand semi-arid zones. But grazing lands those in the urban centres. This article is a product of a project onare being lost due to drought, increasing Some engage in small-scale trade, for reducing vulnerability to droughts inpopulation pressure and restricted access example selling or bartering livestock agropastoral and pastoral systems in Eastto land. This is forcing more and more for grain. and West Africa, funded by the Systemwidepastoralists to settle and grow crops, Families delay major expenses, like Livestock Programme.resulting in considerable reduction in marriage and schooling, until thegrazing lands. drought is over.Coping strategies Lessons learnedThe International Livestock Research The survey data confirmed the effectsInstitute (ILRI), in collaboration of climate change on pastoralists’with partners, analysed the coping livelihoods. It is important that researchers,mechanisms of Fulani pastoralists in policymakers and other stakeholdersTillabery, Maradi and Zinder regions, recognise the multiple processes andpastoral and agro-pastoral zones in Niger. stresses that increase their vulnerability.The project considered the roles of poor There are several initiatives that couldpastoralist and agro-pastoralist producers improve community responses to drought:and associations, non-governmentalorganisations, donor organisations, The management of grain and feedresearchers and policy makers. banks should be improved at household level.The project identified technical, policy and Improved market access, especiallyinstitutional intervention options that could for food crops, would enable morereduce the vulnerability of livestock and livestock–grain exchanges during Subscribe totheir keepers to climatic shocks, particularly drought.drought. This involved collecting and The enhancement of livestock mobility,sharing available knowledge on current through the integration of existingclimate change and identifying potential riskmanagement and coping options. regional and national policies on livestock into local conventions. Joto Afrika Illegal levies, imposed by local authoritiesOne coping mechanism is the sale of live for the passage and grazing of herds,animals during drought to buy grains for should be removed; these contravene laws Organisations and individuals in Africahousehold consumption. The animals sold that guarantee livestock mobility. can receive a free printed copy ofare mainly males, but breeding females are the briefings. Each issue will also besometimes sold in severe droughts. This available on the ALIN website (www.makes herd reconstitution after a drought alin.net).much more difficult. Pastoralists also sellfresh milk and processed milk products. See also You can subscribe by sending an email to jotoafrica@alin.net. Please Identifying livestock-based risk include your organisation and your fullThe data collected shows that livestock management and coping options to postal address. You can also subscribeplay an important role in the resilience reduce vulnerability to droughts in and send feedback via SMS, toof poor pastoral communities in Niger. agro-pastoral and pastoral systems +254717032322 and start with the wordBut communities have other coping in East and West Africa (2007–2009). Joto.mechanisms as well. http://bit.ly/mT9THN They collect wild plants for food, such as wild millet varieties, the grains of grasses including Cenchrus biflorus, and some fruits. Page 3
    • Grazing management as an adaptation measure Case studyConserved pasture in nothern Kenya. © Guyo Tuke,2011Grazing areas in Kenya are slowly communities to plan when to move animals to managed by the surrounding communities,diminishing due to the changing climate a particular site and what species of animals intruders from other communities canand poor management. Food for the are allowed. damage them. Elders also complain aboutHungry-Kenya (FH-Kenya) works with the lack of support from the government,communities – elders, environmental Grazing control since some defaulters are not punished.management committees, community Elders organise meetings before everyleaders and local administrations – to wet and dry season to determine the ways To resolve these issues, FH-Kenyadevelop tools to manage pastures in forward in grazing management; FH-Kenya recommends:grazing areas. supports these meetings. The elders choose guards to ensure that grazing rules are including all people – especially womenResource maps followed to prevent overuse. There are and young people – in grazing meetings;The FH-Kenya pastoralist livelihoods consequences for those who are violating in most communities, young peopleprogramme works with communities to the rules: several people have been fined graze the animals, but they are notidentify their resource needs and produce for breaking the rules, in the form of cash or involved in grazing meetingsresource maps that show where grazing livestock fines. If people do not accept the government administrators shouldland and water are in their locality. This can orders of the elders’ courts, the issues are be involved in grazing managementhelp community members to recognise the directed to government administrators. The planning meetings, so that they canpresence of resources that they did not District Officer attends meetings to support support pasture management groups inpreviously know about. the elders in pasture management. law enforcement leaders from all communities shouldSeasonal calendars Challenges work together to plan their livestockRotational grazing prevents overgrazing; Through these efforts, pastures now last movements.it allows grass cover to regrow, which is much longer before they are exhausted.important for soil conservation. Seasonal Nevertheless, there are still challenges.grazing calendars explain when and where For example, local culture demands that Guyo Tukegrazing takes place and for how long. We a man must bring in animals from outside Pastoralist Livelihoods Program Managertrain communities to learn about the best his village, even if it means stealing. But FH-Kenya, P. O. Box 14978-0800, Nairobi,times to graze (in both wet and dry seasons) livestock theft results in conflicts, which Kenyaand what level the grass must be for disrupt negotiated grazing management Tel +254 729215698grazing to take place. The calendar allows plans. Even if grazing areas are well gtuke@fh.org ika atforclirmcaate o i jodtapntigeg in Ad ica n f Afr a a an Contribute to Joto Afrika ch sk e in r. A cu oc clude r ri ng ey r th st in ially in d fte mu n d a ach spec nt, a ste ha an e e ng appro res, pm ent uri lo , d ent easu deve lopmility to e fore m isa ate c m ve b th be nage ntive cture ic de lnera and o nts ma ve ru om vu e als At eve tic l pre frast con man incom ould ge. lis in ho hnica s of cio-e e hu sed It sh wled ate D tec area of so duc incre ods. s kno of clim re a o ls clim al the ects d to h as elih enou ent ow to g leve m 10 o asp gne suc n of liv indig age der h angin 20 si n 1 – tw de rds, catio ount ma onsi to ch ril ge tly za e c ica ha ersifi acc e, th ust ility in ri an Do you want to tell people how your community is adapting to climate e Ap Afr ed ility b in en t2 ch rren forc div e into e tim cts m era tis b ito ge ate s cu rein s, m pa vuln ori era e3 m k ta sa im ri an ge 3 m ge ely e p t vuln nd u S ch cli de as e the nge uma . n Ed na NT nd llen vers eca cre l tb nd t Iss a te ma eri a a h ch uce er risk us hes ty s a en E ma sk k a ha d d in to atura ds. s m e hig r safe t live lopm ilt. cli Nig s in 4 ris st c – a ing NT t ri red isast ort a ter ate kind com cted of n floo ase an e u eff ith th ed fo el th dev ce b change? Are you involved in a programme, project or research that nd gh gie d ka urb as re of CO u ate n e y d on w ne lev , n ris dro in str Dis the g uma the exp nsit an incre ting tati ies t ted ilie ter g in bil ity sk 5 of ing h r. In e is inte hts to xis ap unit ates at this rotec d res nt as rnin ri e e ng ug ely y e Ad mm gre is e p an Dis era od uc d fac ch oth cha y an s dro o lik ead s. rge , lea uln flo red co the e. It an b fety y cit ost u risk er gv ed ea ate uenc ch a als to alr ntrie d an ilienc ds c nd sa a ap e m ate g Pe as o to ict 6 is helping people to find practical solutions to cope with the effects of gin red m is res lihoo d, a dc na it y-b sd ? p cli freq rs su nge ility cou an ng th g c elop tand lim in Ma un itie un wan a e to 7 the aste cha era ping b live mote ing amo ssin Dev ders mm ia mm Bots dg dis mate vuln evelo pro ild bu are addre els. to un Co zan co wle ity ent v s e Ta n an k in no 8 Cli ople’s in d : al ac for l le ap lopm nts loca unitie ctive velo rks, a ly p th nd t c r ris sk ue s e to es ysic r a u iq pe zard du s h C ve e de n. climate change? We want your contributions for Joto Afrika – especially no es fo t m e o n Wh aste mb ely str ate p ss de uirem rly a com s, eff on, netw tatio tatio ige ya za ha larg ne p dis ind Ken ito r Mo om eq ic u red refu , lly req rticula ty of issue rmati and adap ada d ing in ed k in is is on ad pa ca pa abili risk info tions riate ctive , an ce. Us fall the ris Th -ec d in pre to onse f ter cio an nd es the ate ilable stitu prop r effe aluate erien rain rs to as so eing cture tion a urc resp ts o so ess, onen clim ava ry in ap al fo o ev exp nd tte dis edia g stru ca contributors from regions beyond East Africa. Our next issue will be on re e ssa uild nti als om Le g m a a du ial redn omp nt. us e d b se st k a le gin e infr ak e nc c fr ris eop t na h th e rs t fina repa ry c geme se ne n an is es s mu learn ing es p rotec Ma ug an d w aste n e p ove na rea to pla ons nitie e to uc ed requir est p thro gs dis fficie nt th d rec r ma inc ns ti ac mmu thes l. R ir fin ate e ely reate erty cia ters an b the ay rie insu lem n an aste Co nitor d b clim s p e lik – th pov and nt cru isas ey c and a w icate im igatio d dis energy. nte ng to serie n d th ents ape ber pme mo n is to d w th perty vides mun ate pri ti e , mit grate – a ev sc um lo ati o ty o m clim apt ika s of ap . Th ues inte ge ous to e the n deve uc bili d h pro pro co d ir Afr rie t ad ica iss or an s e Ed era rstan their ation s to and to a in the to a se bou Afr the at po ange ch zard ffort e in ten t th ln vu unde lves, duc unitie risks ther ers ing Jo a n d h ate d ha ’s e reas threa mee . o ut ika is rces ahara rstan ies th ate c Clim late eople y inc will s to oals to ms d e s. E mm out h o oth arn rt in lt Ab Afr sou b-S nde unit clim o b ac e le u to rt re in ck p a. An sters effort ent G the lihoo an c er a ate e ngag and to sta to ad nd Jo line re in su ple u ppo g to t’. live Afric h oth otiv to e risks eds ugh rs a on nge peo nd o aptin ely hea blo Afric disa der pm d late sure c e os e f in le o d hin evelo -re xpo for h ea , to m , and s of rs n thro isaste c ha help ts a ad rty. e lo g th nd b elin a a n a ate t e r wit nge pond ne ang nu s e ing t d in will nstra face g po in ve an y lth ; sc ins a m D fric lim ec s o ty a re ou it c a is fe restr hea ga enn iu r A s, c dir ood rabili ch res Awa nd d onti s ab We are looking for research work, community case studies, videos, audio co ople apin ili; s fo trie om as fl lne the ge d an orts. sks a on, mme c ah fric : fo an . Mill ge oun ly fr an , eri rch pe esc Sw an ‘A us on d hum lists ird en an c t on such the ems cha ms vu to n eff out ri ucati gra d is e ra all Nig esea an ika m foc an sto is th o Ch r Afric me n zards from syst ate prob le ab y ed on p ge. ro n, Afr d to will ange d pa t th uld rl isio ic R to s n ou ct Fo s co l ha t also omic s. C ting risks, y and lim ea ucati chan mi t Div nom Jo nslate sue te ch ge a ab wo nta n f ed ate nfe en Eco tra ture is clima chan ink you – co risk natura , bu eco azard exis ns o vert ent. clips and photo essays about climate change adaptation across sub-Saharan u th hat ues to ughts l and se h nsify atio ad p nm o clim loru pm nd Fu DD; ate yo w iss . O velo l a at nd dro socia f the inte omb spre envi de ds; d in ro x B De cia RE clim wh ika a ture o d to c e ral lu o n eli sical of So a F y 7 m 3 o d s of cts te ew wid tu inc liho IV a ri 08 an ll u Afr t in fu . e Ph titute Nige 395 oo.c e te to u 8 eff xpec ate n ting e na cern le live ty; H rity 3 as f Jo bo ge is is e cre e ex on th r con erab curi secu cture Ins dan, 4 80 @yah Ple ue o ad a n pa Africa. The case studies need to be short (no more than 600 words), easy d an en th ence icula vuln l inse eak stru to eal Iba +23 000 iss to re re o a l Te xba 2 like tails a giv pend f part with enta ies; w f infr ccess to d m de as o nities ron ualit ck o of a cities feli de vi q k Are mu d en r ine the la lac capa m e co d an ende nce; d th and nt to understand and provide practical information for other people facing these e foo S; g rna n; an rces urg e es AID gove catio sou uir trem d an edu ate . re req f ex nt o d ri an prop asters me acts ge ap h dis na imp ma the problems. If you would like to contribute, please contact the editor at wit risk uce er d ast to re Dis on ti ac s in jotoafrica@alin.net. We welcome contributions in French and English. od ya. flo Ken p in b in tu gh adaa cau ar D rs be , ne em issa 8 y m ar 0 u nit a, G gi, 20 e an mm ar Co etho n Mw Sar usa S ©Page 4
    • Using Mbororo herders’ traditional knowledge Research summaryPastoralists in search of water in Lac-Chad.© Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim, 2011Indigenous people are dependent on Many nomads practice the rotational use include climate diaries, where communitythe environment and natural resources. of pasturelands, which allows pasture to members record their observations of theThis close relationship with the earth recover after intense grazing. climate, and the sharing of local oral histories.means that they are often among the Further recommendations include: Some groups divide their livestock:first groups to suffer the consequences only the strongest animals are taken on Additional financial resources willof climate change. longer migrations. be necessary to combine traditional Many also raise different types of knowledge and technological capabilities,The Mbororo which most communities do not have. livestock (such as cattle and goats),The Fulani-Mbororo people (often called which have different grazing habits and Governments should learn fromMbororo) are nomadic and semi-nomadic reduce herders’ risk of losing all theirlivestock herders whose territory includes indigenous peoples’ responses and animals to one disease. knowledge when creating nationalparts of Cameroon, Central African This knowledge about responses to climate policies, rather than implementingRepublic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. For change could be used to find solutions that policies that destroy or infringe uponthem, climate change is not a distant issue; these traditional responses.in recent years they have faced increasing could help the whole society to adapt. Fordrought, desertification and biodiversity loss example, technologies such as participatory Full participation by indigenousin their homeland. Mbororo herders migrate mapping tracking could be used to show how communities – including all communityvast distances to feed their livestock – from to protect pastures. Traditional knowledge members – is essential for developing110–1000 kilometres. Droughts are making about rainfall patterns and seasonal changes official adaptation strategies, so in the weather could also be useful. that government plans do not havethese distances even longer, as they search a negative impact on vulnerablefor pasture. communities. RecommendationsSome indigenous Mbororo herders in There is a need to strengthen the links Hindou Oumarou IbrahimChad, who used to farm nomadic cattle, between traditional knowledge and other adaptation approaches, and improve the Chadian Indigenous Mbororo Women andare being forced to change their way of Peoples Association (AFPAT), B.P. 58, S/c two-way information exchange betweenlife to become semi-nomadic or sedentary. Salaheddine, pastoralists and the meteorologicalThey try to adapt traditional methods to this sector. In particular, the information N’djamena, Chaddifferent lifestyle, but cannot even produce already documented by nomads must be Tel +235 629 2519a subsistence harvest. And all the livestock disseminated more widely. Good approaches hindououmar@yahoo.frwhich they once depended on are nowdead or have been sold.Adaptation strategies Surviving the droughtThe challenges facing the Mbororo, andother indigenous peoples, in the fight Many parts of Kenyaagainst climate change are enormous. The are experiencingunique needs of these groups are rarely severe andaddressed in public debates or in the work prolonged drought,of national, regional and international and Elwak, in theorganisations. northern region, has not been spared.But many indigenous nomads have The six-minuteknowledge about how to adapt to climate video ‘Surviving thechange and protect resources during Drought’ shows thedroughts. realities of climate change; people The Mbororo traditionally travel in have to share ways that allow the regeneration their little food with of ecosystems. Their approach to livestock, and some managing natural resources is also fair use unconventional and rational. alternatives such as wet carton boxes flavoured with salt or See also sugar to save their animals. This video ‘For Climate Change Adaptation, shows the deepest Traditional Knowledge is Critical’, effects of drought. Conservation International blog http://bit.ly/nApKsi Livestock fed on wet carton boxes in Elwak, Kenya. © ALIN, 2011 http://bit.ly/nPSXW5 Page 5
    • Vulnerability in Ethiopia’s pastoral communities Case studyPastoralists in Ethiopia struggling with weatherpatterns that are increasingly unpredictable.© Yohannes, snnprpastoral.gov.etDroughts have occurred in the Ethiopian available is very limited. This forces women Pastoralists’ ability to adapt to climate changelowlands throughout history. Strategies to travel further to collect it, and greatly is currently constrained by many factors.to cope with and adapt to drought are increases crop failure in agro-pastoral These include limited access to informationembedded in local communities’ social areas. (for example about weather, climatestructures and resource management change, and pest and disease outbreaks),systems. For example, pastoralists store These problems lead to greater food low education and skills, limited financialsurplus milk and butter to distribute insecurity and malnutrition among resources, and few accessible new marketsto poor households with no milking pastoralists. There are also social problems: in which to sell products. These limitationsanimals, especially during dry seasons. conflicts increase due to competition over need to be addressed by non-governmental scarce resources during drought years, organisations and the government.In Ethiopia’s Borana and Shinile zones, especially in Borana, and school drop- Furthermore, the Ethiopian Governmentmost people are pastoralists or agro- out rates among children increase due to should:pastoralists. Livestock kept in the area community migration in search of water.include cattle, sheep, goats and camels, Human diseases and death rates also re-evaluate the role of pastoralismand the number of livestock determines increase during droughts. in Ethiopia’s development, includingthe level of household wealth. People also policies to clarify land tenure systemssell their livestock; exports from Borana How to prepare for climate change that allow vital pastoral mobilitycontribute significantly to the national The lowland communities need new improve the coordination,income. The main crops grown are maize, adaptation strategies to complement communication and information-sharingteff, sorghum and haricot beans. their traditional ones. One way could be between different government agencies, modifying livestock diversity, composition from national to local levels, especiallyThe scale of current climate change, and numbers. In Borana, cattle and information related to weather, climatecombined with environmental, social and sheep are especially vulnerable to and food securitypolitical pressures, means that many drought, but goats and camels are less buy weak and old animals fromtraditional strategies are no longer effective. affected by pasture degradation and bush pastoralists early, when livestock pricesDrought and extreme heat have great encroachment, since they are ‘browsers’. are still high.impacts on natural resources. For example, Investing in goats and camels would makelivestock become less resistant to disease pastoralists less vulnerable to drought. Cynthia Brenda Awuor– they often die because of the extreme Adaptation Learning Programme in Africa,conditions – and less productive in terms of Another option is to pursue alternative CARE International, Kindaruma Lane,milk and meat. This reduces livestock prices, livelihood activities. In the lowlands, these off Ngong Road, P.O. Box 2039-00202,since the livestock sold are emaciated, which include casual labour in the construction Nairobi, Kenyain turn reduces household incomes. industry, the sale of livestock products (such Tel +254 20 2807000 / 2718405 as milk), beekeeping, and the production awuor@careclimatechange.orgIn these circumstances, pasture areas and sale of vegetables. People also gatherbecome greatly reduced, overgrazed firewood and make charcoal, and collect Co-authors include Béatrice Riché (IISD),(as there is less pasture available) and water, minerals (such as gold, marble and Excellent Hachileka (IUCN) and Annedegraded. In addition, the amount of water granite), incense and natural gum to sell. Hammill (IISD) Join the Joto Afrika debate online Joto Afrika Eldis Community Group: http://bit.ly/bM3ESo Joto Africa Facebook Group: http://bit.ly/aMNLthPage 6
    • Letters to the editorWe welcome your feedback on this seventh issue of Joto Afrika. Please send us yourthoughts using the contact details on Page 8. Please include your full contact addressor email. A selection of letters will be printed in the next issue. Dear Editor, For the sake of our East African Countries like Tanzania, and Kenya, we would love to have a Kiswahili edition. We are grateful and excited about Joto Afrika. It is very informative and written in the simplest language, which most As an organisation we look forward to further copies and also of our local communities – especially the farmers – can share information and our experiences with Joto Afrika readers. understand. It explains climate change, its causes, current indicators/impacts, and what it means to our future in the Peter Mbogo forthcoming editions I would wish to see the following: Kenya More insight on the causes of climate change and the tangible indicators to a common citizen. Editor; Peter,we appreciate your feedback. How we can collectively mitigate climate change. For Kiswahili readers, we encourage you to How do we link the local NGOs and CBOs with the various repackage the English version for wider national and international organisations trying to capacity dissemination. Is this something we could build or fund activities geared towards reducing greenhouse collaborate on? gases. Dear Editor, suffer hugely with changes in temperature and rainfall. I have been enjoying the Joto Afrika series very much and would If you think this would be a suitable topic, I could submit a case like to contribute a case study or possibly a research summary. study about our work on adaptation in Uganda. I work for an NGO (based in the UK) which works with groups of Jessica Frank smallholder coffee farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our team works Climate Resilience Project Officer in partnership with coffee-producing organisations to help them to Uganda gain market access and get good prices for their coffee as well as supporting organisational development and capacity building projects. Editor; Jessica, We are glad you find Joto Afrika useful. Joto Afrika is thematic; however you can We are also now working with our partners to help them adapt to submit your case study to be considered in our climate change, since coffee is a highly vulnerable crop and will future editions. Dear Editor, read more on alternative fuel for our domestic use. Should we promote bio-gas in its natural state? Congratulations for your endless efforts to educate Africans on the need for environmental conservation. After going through the Mwiwawi Bristone Mwazighe detailed publication about the REDD programme you have made Kenya me realise that I am the change my community is waiting for. Editor: Thank you for the question on alternative I work on community projects in the Kenyan Taita-Taveta County. fuel. Our next issue will be on energy and we will Most of the community here are engaged in mining, pastoralism, feature case studies on alternative fuel and bio- commercial tree logging and small-scale farming. I would like to gas. Please look out for that issue as well. Evaluate Joto Afrika!… Dear Readers, Our evaluation is now online in english and french. Why not take a Greetings from the Joto Afrika team. few minutes and do it now: English version: http://svy.mk/r9u0E0 We are evaluating Joto Afrika from July to French version: http://svy.mk/ncfXnH September 2011. Our aim is to not only ensure that we have sufficient evidence to inform If you are happy for us to contact you decisions about Joto Afrika in the future but to via telephone/Skype or for a face-to-face also understand how people access and use interview, please send us your number climate change adaptation information. We hope so that we can call you. You can email you can help us by providing feedback on: the details to jotoafrica@alin.net or text +254 717032322 and start with the word the relevance of Joto Afrika – the magazine ‘Joto’. and the online videos how you have used it in your work Thank you for your help with this! how we can improve it further. The Joto Afrika team We will use different evaluation methods: face- to-face interviews, online questionnaires and telephone conversations. Page 7
    • Livestock insurance in northern Kenya Case studyEducation on livestock insurance in Marsabit,Kenya. © ILRI 2009With livestock dying from lack of pasture 3.25 percent and 5.5 percent of the value The impact of the project is currently beingand water, the pastoral way of life is of their herds to insure them for a year. assessed to find out whether it can bebeing reduced to a struggle for survival For a cow, the cost starts at 467 Kenyan extended to other districts. However, therein northern Kenya. Pastoralists may shillings (KES), about US$5.20; it is are some clear challenges:soon lose all of their livestock as the KES50 (less than a dollar) for a goat oreffects of drought continue, which in sheep. The smallest insurable unit is a Many pastoralists do not understand theturn will also affect livestock markets. ‘tropical livestock unit’, which is equivalent concept of insurance and have little or to one cow. Livestock keepers determine no previous experience with it. Due toIndex-based livestock insurance (IBLI) gives what percentage of their livestock they this confusion, some demand payoutspastoralists protection against climate- can afford to insure. when they lose their livestock even if their animals’ death was not caused byrelated risks such as drought-induced drought.livestock losses. This reduces the likelihood The region has poor infrastructure. Thisof descending into poverty. IBLI is based on makes it more challenging to access the The prevailing drought in Kenya isthe level of forage available for livestock to area and provide extension services. expected to affect an estimated 1.8feed on. Because this cannot be influenced million people, according to Abbas Gulletby insurers or policy holders, it is relatively There is a need for continuous education of the Kenya Red Cross Society; thesesimple and transparent, especially given people are mostly pastoralists, agro- and training for pastoralists, so that theythat satellite-based data on forage is readily pastoralists and those living in marginal can understand insurance products better.available. This makes such products easier agricultural areas. More commercial partners will also need toto administer and consequently more cost- invest if the scheme is to develop further.effective to develop and sell. Brenda WanderaInsurance in Marsabit Payouts depend on predicted livestock ILRI, P.O Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100, KenyaIn January 2010, the International Livestock mortality rates. The project uses satellite Tel +254 20 4223000; +254 722 247664Research Institute (ILRI), together with its imagery to determine and predict forage b.wandera@cgiar.orgcommercial partners UAP insurance, Equity scarcity, and when animals are likelyInsurance Agency and Swiss Re Insurance, to starve. The scheme pays out afterlaunched a pilot IBLI project in the Marsabit detecting a 15 percent level of predictedregion of Kenya. To begin, ILRI and mortality. It then issues insurance payouts See alsopartners identified village members to act to insured pastoralists. The payout periodsas insurance promoters. They were trained are usually after the long dry period (end For more information on this scheme,to promote insurance products and advise of September) and after the short dry visit www.ilri.org/iblipastoralists about where they could buy period (end of February). Index-based livestock insurancesinsurance. Currently, they have two sales http://bit.ly/iuojgIdevices – ‘hunger safety net’ and scanner- Impactsbased cell phones. The pilot project has achieved some Video on pastoral livestock insurances success. About 2,500 households in http://bit.ly/lfXQkuThe insurance is sold during the dry Marsabit district have bought insuranceperiods (January–February and August– cover, showing a willingness amongSeptember). Pastoralists pay between pastoralists to try new approaches.Joto Afrika is produced four times a year Guest Editor Consulting Editor Joto Afrikaby ALIN in partnership with the Institute Eric Kisiangani Tim Woods Arid Lands Informationof Development Studies (IDS).The Climate Change Adaptation Unit, Networkseries is funded by the UK Department Practical Action Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Editorial Team P.O BOX 10098-00100for International Development (DFID) Kenya Esther Lung’ahi, Chief G.P.Othrough the IDS. Articles from Joto Afrika Editor – ALIN Nairobi, Kenyamay be re-used, provided the materials Academic Advisor James Nguo – ALINare distributed free of charge and the Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, Department of Susan Mwangi – ALIN Tel+254 20 2731557author(s) are credited. Please send Animal Production, Alexandria University, Anthony Mugo – ALIN Fax +254 20 2737813copies to ALIN.Views expressed in Joto Egypt Fatema Rajabali – IDS SMS +254 717032322Afrika do not necessarily reflect the views jotoafrica@alin.netof the editors or ALIN, IDS, or DFID. ISSN 2075-5562