Fighting stopped on November 11 at 11 AM – 11th month, 11th day, 11th hour“Officers had their watches in their hands, and the troops waited with the same grave composure with which they had fought. At two minutes to eleven…a German machine-gunner, after firing off a belt without pause, was seen to stand up beside his weapon, take off his helmet, bow, and then slowly walk to the rear.”“There came a moment of expectant silence, and then a curious rippling sound, which observers from the front likened to the noise of a light wind. It was the sound of men cheering from [France] to the sea.”German general – “Firing has ceased. Undefeated… you are terminating the war in enemy country.”
Germany did not feel defeated = no guilt over starting the war“If the Germans signed the treaty it meant that they “accepted the responsibility” for all the losses that had resulted from the war….Germans found these words infuriating, and an insult to their honor. For that, and other reasons, they at first refused to sign the treaty. They signed it only when the Allies threatened to resume the war.”“In the years to come an army veteran would rant in front of German crowds about the heavy fine, the confiscated land, the army limit, and the war guilt clause. The humiliation of Versailles cried out for vengeance. As Adolf Hitler shouted, sneered, and threatened, thousands cheered.”
Was supposed to rely on talks and treaties, not on force.“Law-abiding countries, it was hoped would rein in rogue ones with the threat of reprimand or sanctions.”
The Allies Win!<br />In 1918, Germany accepted an armistice (an agreement to end the fighting) and the war was over<br />
Paris Peace Talks<br />The “Big Four” met to discuss peace terms<br />Great Britain – wanted to protect colonies, harsh punishment for Germany<br />France – wanted to protect colonies, harsh punishment for Germany<br />Italy – wanted colonies<br />The United States – wanted fair treatment of Germany, self determination in colonized lands, League of Nations<br />Produced Treaty of Versailles<br />
The Treaty of Versailles<br />Terms of the treaty:<br />Germany lost territory and colonies<br />The German military was weakened<br />Germany had to accept blame for the war<br />Germany had to pay $33 billion in reparations<br />The League of Nations was created<br />
Reasons for failure of the treaty:<br />The U.S. never approved it<br />Germans were very angry and bitter<br />Particularly over “war guilt” clause<br />Italy felt betrayed and cheated<br />European colonies were not given independence<br />
Creation of The League of Nations<br />The League of Nations: an international organization created after WWI to settle arguments between countries and prevent wars<br />
Reasons for failure:<br />The U.S. never joined<br />Every nation had to agree on every issue<br />Couldn’t raise money<br />Couldn’t raise an army to enforce rules<br />Didn’t prevent several wars/events that led to WWII<br />
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.