Heating Of Water

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Heating Of Water

  1. 1. Heating of Water by the Comeniusgroup of Merianschule Seligenstadt April 2008
  2. 2. Why Water? <ul><li>All Life on earth is based on Water </li></ul><ul><li>Water occupies special characteristics regarding our climatic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>We use heated Water as carrier for heat, for cooking, for washing, in the bathroom, for drinking, etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Special Properties of Water <ul><li>Solid Water (Ice) swims on the surface of the liquid Water </li></ul><ul><li>For a Dihydrogen compound of the 6th maingroup it has notable high melting and boiling points as well as a high viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>Wide gap between melting and boiling point (100°C) </li></ul><ul><li>(NH 3 : 45°; HCl: 30°; HBr 21°; HI: 16°; CO: 8°) </li></ul><ul><li>Extremly high heat capacity of 4,18 kJ/kg °C </li></ul>
  4. 4. Effects of High Heat capacity <ul><li>High power requirement for heating </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent carrier for the transport of Energy (liquid and steam) </li></ul><ul><li>Water is balancing the world‘s climatic system because of its huge volume in the oceans and the steam in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures only small fluctuations in global temperatures– </li></ul><ul><li>the basis for all life on our planet </li></ul>
  5. 5. Heating of Water at Home <ul><li>Three methods are common: </li></ul><ul><li>- electric kettle </li></ul><ul><li>- cooker </li></ul><ul><li>- microwave </li></ul>
  6. 6. Generell Aspects of Measurement and Efficiency of Conversion <ul><li>Heating of a defined amount of Water </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of temperature difference </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of electrical parameters and time </li></ul>Two Calculations
  7. 7. 1.) Calculation of the inserted Energy <ul><li>Voltage x Amperage = Power </li></ul><ul><li>(in Watt) </li></ul><ul><li>Power x Time = Energy input </li></ul><ul><li>(in Joule or Wattseconds) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2.) Calculation of the absorbed Energy <ul><li>Weight of Water x heat Capacity x </li></ul><ul><li>temperature difference </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed Energy </li></ul><ul><li>(in Joule or Wattseconds) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Efficiency of the System
  10. 10. Experimental Setup
  11. 11. Measured Efficiency <ul><li>electric cooker microwave </li></ul><ul><li>kettle </li></ul>92% 87% 47%
  12. 12. Pros and Cons <ul><li>+ most efficient Method (92% conversion) </li></ul><ul><li>+ only small amount of the vessel is heated </li></ul><ul><li>- Constructed for of heating water only </li></ul>Electric kettle:
  13. 13. Pros and Cons <ul><li>+ reasonably efficient method (87% conversion) </li></ul><ul><li>+ wide range usage </li></ul><ul><li>+ time saving because of high power </li></ul><ul><li>+ best method for long operating times and large amounts </li></ul><ul><li>- hotplate and vessel need to be heated additionally </li></ul><ul><li>- Residual heat is often not used </li></ul>Cooker:
  14. 14. Pros and Cons of the methods <ul><li>+ direct warming without heating of the vessel </li></ul><ul><li>+ short start-up time </li></ul><ul><li>+ best method for short-time heating </li></ul><ul><li>- only 47% of the inserted energy is used </li></ul>Microwave:
  15. 15. How Processes Work

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