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Harvard citing and referencing


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  • 1. Citing & Referencing the Harvard Way
  • 2. What is referencing?
    Referencing is a system used to acknowledge the work or ideas of another person in your assignments. When you refer to someone else’s work, you must reference the source of the information.
  • 3. Why reference?
    • Demonstrates your reading and research
    • 4. Acknowledge the work that has informed your arguments
    • 5. Enable a reader to trace the source of information that you have used
    • 6. Assessment requirement
    • 7. Protect yourself against charges of plagiarism or cheating
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 8. What is plagiarism?
    The Oxford English Dictionary (2006) describes plagiarism as;
    "The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own".
    Plagiarism often refers to textual information, but it may also be images, tables, graphical data, or even music.
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 9. Types of plagiarism
    Complete plagiarism
    When a piece of work consists of nothing but other people's work.
    Copy and Paste
    This is when information from another source is copied exactly and no credit is given to the creator.
    Word switch
    When text is copied from another source with a few of the words changed but the text is almost identical.
    Concealing sources
    You must reference a source every time you use it.
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 10. Types of plagiarism (cont.)
    Misinterpreting common knowledge
    Common knowledge (such as common algebraic equations and historical facts) can be used in your work but if it is not common knowledge you must reference it correctly.
    Using the same piece of work (or part of) as another student.
    Self plagiarism
    Using the same piece of work (or part of) for two different assignments.
    Accurate referencing protects against plagiarism
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 11. What is Harvard Referencing?
    Main system in use at the University
    Sometimes called the author date method
    2 main elements
    References in the text
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 12. Citing in the text - Quoting
    Using the exact words from the text. Quotation marks should be used.
    Green (1999) writes that “we live in the shadow of the sixties. Of all the artificial constructs by which we delineate our immediate past, ‘the sixties’ have the greatest purchase on the mass imagination. They stand rightly or not, as the dominant myth of the modern era”.
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 13. There are a number of ways of
    referencing other people’s work, but
    they all share some features.
    A citation is inserted at the appropriate point in your text to indicate the existence of related work.
    A full reference is given separately for each citation, to enable the reader to trace the corresponding work.
  • 14. Elements of referencing
    InfoBites 2008/9
    Reference list
  • 15. Citing in the text - Summarising
    Taking the key points from a book or article and expressing them in your own words.
    Green (1999) argues that the sixties are the pivotal period of the modern world.
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 16. Citing in the text - Paraphrasing
    Interpreting an author’s ideas and expressing them in your own words. The same meaning written in a different way.
    For Green (1999), the idea of ‘the sixties’ has a very powerful hold on our contemporary culture.
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 17. Examples
    a. In his discussion about wartime film, Chapman (1998) notes that the cinema was a valuable tool for propaganda
    b. Chapman (1998) explains that cinema was a valuable tool for wartime propaganda
    c. Cinema was a valuable tool for wartime propaganda (Chapman, 1998)
    Chapman, J. (1998) The British at war: cinema, state and propaganda 1939-1945. London: I.B. Tauris
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 18. The reference list
    At the end of your work before appendices
    Must contain everything that you have referenced in your assignment
    Listed in alphabetical order by author surname regardless of format
    If more than one work by same author, order by year
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 19. Reference list - what to record
    InfoBites 2008/9
  • 20. How to Reference a Book
    Author's surname followed by a comma.
    Author's initials in capitals, with full-stop after each - and a final comma.
    Year of publication followed by full-stop.
    Full title of book in italics with capitalization of first word and proper nouns only - followed by full-stop unless there is a sub-title - follow by full stop.
    Edition number followed by the abbreviation "ed." - followed by full-stop.
    Place of publication: Town or city, follow by colon.
    Publisher - company name followed by full-stop.
    Russell, D.E. & Norvig, P., 2009. Artificial Intelligence: a modern
    approach , 3rd ed., Prentice-Hall.
  • 21. How to Reference a Journal Article
    Author's surname followed by a comma.
    Author's initials in capitals, with full-stop after each - and a final comma.
    Year of publication followed by full-stop.
    Full title of the article - not in italics - with capitalization of first word
    and proper nouns only - followed by full-stop unless there is a sub-title.
    Full title of journal, in italics, with capitalization of key words – followed by comma.
    Volume number
    Issue/Part number in brackets, followed by comma.
    Page range preceded by "pp.“
    Knuth, D.E. & Moore, R.W., 1975. An Analysis of Alpha-Beta Pruning,
    Artificial Intelligence 6(4), pp. 293-326.
  • 22. How to Reference a Website
    Authorship or Source - followed by comma
    Year - followed by full-stop.
    Title of web document or web page - in italics - followed by "[Online]"
    Date of most recent update - within round brackets.
    Available at - followed by the URL (underlined)
    Date of most recent access - in square brackets - followed by full-stop
    Creaney, N., 2008. Legal Issues for IT Professionals [Online]
    (Updated 26 September 2008) Available at: [Accessed 30 January 2009].